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Key to Bhutanese Umbelliferae Genera (Part I)
Mark F. Watson
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

1 Leaves all simple, margin entire or toothed, sometimes shallowly lobed, but not more than half the width of the leaf 2
+ Leaves compound, 1-5 x ternately or pinnately divided or, if simple, then very deeply lobed or basal (see Pimpinella) 5
2 Leaves and bracts spinous toothed; flowers in compact heads sessile on a whorl of bracts Eryngium
+ Leaves and bracts not spinous toothed; flowers in distinct umbels 3
3 Plants of dry habitats with erect to ascending stems; leaf margins entire; umbels compound Bupleurum
+ Plants of damp habitats with creeping stems rooting at nodes; leaves lobed or not, margins crenate or serrate; umbels simple 4
4 Bracts absent; dorsal ribs of fruit prominent, lateral ones obscure Hydrocotyle
+ Umbels sheathed by small bracts; lateral ribs of fruit as prominent as the dorsal, much wrinkled Centella
5 High altitude plants (>3800m) with well developed erect stems; umbels with flowers densely crowded into globose heads; flowers dark brown; fruit 5-angled in cross-section Haplosphaera
+ Low to high altitude plants, stems tall and robust to almost absent; umbels not globose; flowers white, yellow, greenish or purplish; fruit variously winged or ornamented 6
6 Glabrous annuals; umbellules much reduced to 23 flowers; pedicels very short, unequal Pternopetalum
+ Glabrous or hairy, annuals or perennials; umbellules many- (>5-) flowered; pedicels not as above  7
7 Marshland plants, stems usually weak and fleshy; bracteoles several, linear; fruit ovoid-ellipsoid, lateral ribs thick and corky  Oenanthe
+ Plants of usually drier habitats, stems not weak and fleshy; bracteoles present or absent; fruit variously shaped and ornamented, but ribs not thick and corky 8
8 Erect aromatic herbs (celery scented), 30-60cm tall; umbels subsessile, often leaf-opposed in the upper half of the stem Apium
+ Erect to dwarf plants, scented or not; umbels distinctly pedunculate or sometimes sessile in rosette plants 9
9 Mature or semi-mature fruit present 10
+ Flowers or young fruit only present 46
10 Fruit ornamented with papillae, hairs, bristles or spines 11
+ Fruit smooth, glabrous 19
11 At least outer fruits of umbellule covered with stiff bristles or spines 12
+ Fruits covered with soft hairs or papillae 14
12 Fruit long and narrow, thickened above, pointed at base, covered with upwardly pointing fine bristles, densest at base Osmorhiza
+ Fruit ovoid to ovoid-ellipsoid, covered with spines or stiff spreading bristles 13
13 Almost glabrous woodland perennials; leaves palmately divided; calyx teeth subulate Sanicula
+ Hairy annual weeds; leaves 1-3 x pinnately divided; calyx teeth minute Torilis
14 Ultimate segments of leaves linear, filiform, usually <0.5mm broad 15
+ Leaflets or ultimate segments of leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, >0.5mm broad  16
15 Bracts and bracteoles 3-lobed at apex, semi-cartilaginous; calyx teeth subulate, conspicuous Cuminum
+ Bracts and bracteoles entire, membranous; calyx teeth obsolete Trachyspermum
16 Dwarf perennials, acaulescent with erect peduncles; leaves mostly basal, pinnate, linear-lanceolate in outline, ultimate segments oblong-lanceolate O.5-1mm broad; fruit with dense white hairs Semenovia
+ Caulescent, stems usually leafy; leaflets or ultimate segments of leaves ovate-oblong to suborbicular, 5mm or more broad; fruit papillate or sparsely hairy 17
17 Small to medium-sized perennials usually <1m tall; fruits slightly laterally compressed, unwinged, papillate Pimpinella
+ Medium to large-sized perennials often >1m tall; fruits greatly dorsally compressed with distinct lateral wings, sparsely hairy, glabrous when mature 18
18 Bracts absent or few, early falling; bracteoles linear  Heracleum
+ Bracts and bracteoles numerous, large, lanceolate-ovate, persistent Tordyliopsis
19 Fruits greatly dorsally compressed, main body almost flat and disc-like, or all ribs winged 20
+ Fruits subterete or sometimes slightly compressed (including Anethum) 27
20 Dorsal ribs of fruits with wings about as broad as those on the lateral ribs 21
+ Dorsal ribs of fruit prominent but not winged 23
21 Plants >30cm tall with slender erect stems; flowers dark purple Cnidium
+ Plants <30cm tall, acaulous or shortly stemmed, <30cm tall; flowers usually white or tinged purple 22
22 Fruit rectangular-ellipsoid to suborbicular in outline, truncate at ends, asymmetric with one mericarp having the 2 outer dorsal ribs winged and only the central rib winged on the other Cortiella
+ Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, rounded to obtuse at ends, all dorsal ribs equally winged Cortia
23 Bracts linear to lanceolate, usually entire (rarely 3-toothed); fruits ovoid to suborbicular, dark between ribs, but not with well defined lines (vittae), lateral ribs narrowly winged 24
+ Bracts usually absent or lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, usually entire; fruits ovoid to obovoid, with distinct dark lines (vittae) between ribs, lateral ribs broadly winged 25
24 Leaves glabrous above; vittae in fruit usually 1 per dorsal furrow, 23 per lateral furrow and 46 on inner (commisural) face Selinum
+ Leaves hairy above; vittae in fruit at least 2 per dorsal furrow, at least 3 per lateral furrow and at least 6 on inner face Ligusticum
25 Bracts and bracteoles numerous, large, lanceolate-ovate, persistent Tordyliopsis
+ Bracts few or absent, bracteoles linear, often early falling 26
26 Plants aromatic; vittae extending the full length of the fruit, fruit often notched at both ends Angelica
+ Plants not aromatic; vittae usually not extending the full length of the fruit, fruit rounded to truncate at the ends Heracleum
27 Cultivated annuals (or short-lived perennials) sometimes weedy; leaves pinnatisect into linear segments; bracteoles absent; fruit somewhat dorsally compressed, very narrowly winged Anethum
+ Annuals and perennials, weedy or not; leaf segments and bracteole combination not as above; fruit not dorsally compressed, usually subterete and rounded on the outer face 28
28 Leaves simply pinnate; fruit globose to ovoid-oblong, prominantly 5- or 10-ribbed 29
+ Leaves finely 23 x pinnately divided (but see also Pleurospermum angelicoides); fruit various 31
29 Plants fibrous at base; fruit, 5-ribbed Physospermopsis
+ Plants with papery leaf remains at base; fruit 5- or 10-ribbed 30
30 Calyx teeth present; stylopodium domed, not flanged; fruit 5-ribbed Keraymonia
+ Calyx teeth obsolete; stylopodium flat-domed with a thick rim wider than the ovary; 10-ribbed Chamaesium

Family Front PageKey to Genera Part II
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