BBS > Activities > Meetings and Workshops > Previous > 1971
Meetings of the BBS - 1971
Dulverton, 31 March - 7 April
The Annual Meeting (31 March to 7 April) was held at Dulverton in Somerset, and excursions were made to Exmoor (v.-c. 4 and 5) and the surrounding area. The district was already quite well known bryologically and unexpected finds were few. Thirty-one members attended the meeting.
1 April. The first excursion was to Hartford Bottom (v.-c. 5), a river valley with steep wooded sides and acid soils. There was a stag hunt, and bryologists kept on meeting horsemen and deer running in many directions. Plant finds included Fissidens celticus, Orthotrichum rivulare, Plagiothecium curvifolium* (on a rotten tree stump) and Porella pinnata . In the afternoon several members went up on to Haddon Hill and found Leptodontium flexifolium, Cephaloziella subdentata, Lepidozia trichoclados* (on a vertical peat bank), Odontoschisma denudatum and Riccia warnstorfii.
[* New vice-county record.]
2 April. First stop was the landslip at Blue Anchor on the Somerset coast (v.-c. 5). Bryum capillare var. torquescens and Leiocolea badensis were observed. Then many people went to see Targionia hypophylla which was growing copiously on a railway bank at Sampford Brett together with Bryum donianum c.fr., Eurhynchium megapolitanum and Cephaloziella stellulifera*. For the remainder of the day members explored the valley of Eastern Wood in the Brendon Hills, recording Cynodontium bruntonii, Fissidens curnowii, F. rivularis, Tortula muralis var. aestiva* and Jubula hutchinsiae.
3 April. The main Saturday excursion was to another wooded valley above Tarr Steps on the River Barle (v.-c. 5). On some shaded rocks were Cynodontium bruntonii, Rhabdoweisia fugax. Barbilophozia attenuata* (found also on a fallen log ) and Bazzania trilobata . Other habitats produced Fissidens celticus, Isothecium holtii*, Diplophyllum obtusifolium, Porella pinnata, Ptilidium pulcherrimum, Scapania subalpina* (on an earthy river bank) and S. umbrosa . In the afternoon the party split up and one group found Lepidozia sylvatica* on a heathy cliff-top slope on North Hill near Minehead.
The Annual General Meeting was held at 8.30 p.m.
4 April. This was the free day and many members went to Challacombe Reservoir and the valley below it (v.-c. 4). Dicranella staphylina* was growing in a newly sown pasture and Eurhynchium alopecuroides* on stones in the stream. Cephaloziella rubella*. Diplophyllum obtusifolium and Lophozia bicrenata* were on heathy banks near the reservoir, and Philonotis caespitosa and Scapania umbrosa nearby. Then members dispersed, and the weather, dull throughout most of the meeting, developed into a steady drizzle. Weissia controversa var. densifolia was found at Hunter's Inn near Martinhoe (v.-c. 4) and Bryum pseudotriquetrum var. bimum* on marshy ground in Madacombe (v.-c. 5). Meanwhile another party had visited Torrs Park, west of Ilfracombe (v.-c. 4), recording Pohlia lutescens* on soil on a bank; also Grimmia subsquarrosa and Tortula cuneifolia at Mortehoe.
5 April. A full day was spent exploring the steep, north-facing Embelle Wood, which runs down to the sea between Lynton and Porlock (v.-c. 5). Deep gulleys yielded Fissidens rivularis, Lophocolea fragrans and Marchesinia mackaii* (on sandstone rock), while Rhynchostegiella teesdalei, Tortella nitida and Frullania microphylla* were seen on rocks near the shore. Other finds included Bryum sauteri, Eurhynchium speciosum, Fissidens celticus, Pohlia lutescens* (on soil on a wall), Solenostoma triste and Tritomaria quinquedentata.
6 April. A reduced contingent worked the steep and rocky valley of Hoaroak Water above Watersmeet (v.-c. 4). This was the only place where Hylocomium brevirostre was seen on the meeting, and several plants of humid places were found, including Philonotis fontana var. tomentella*, Blepharostoma trichophyllum, Dumortiera hirsuta, Lejeunea patens* (on rock) and Scapania subalpina* (on silt on rocks). Then the party moved to Malmsmead, where the East Lyn River runs along the Devon-Somerset boundary (v.-c. 4 and 5). The main attraction was Bryum gemmiparum growing on flat rocks all along the river. Other plants seen were Atrichum crispum* (on the river bank. v.-c. 5). Campylopus subulatus* (v.-c. 4). Grimmia laevigata. G. subsquarrosa, Pohlia lutescens, Rhabdoweisia fugax and Scapania subalpina.
Though the meeting brought few surprises, it was in a beautiful part of the country. Widespread western species such as Metzgeria conjugata and Nowellia curvifolia were seen repeatedly, but habitats for more strongly oceanic plants were few. Fissidens rivularis was unexpectedly frequent, being found in five separate localities. The meeting was enjoyed by all and once again our thanks must go to Mrs Appleyard for devoting much time and trouble to the arrangements.
M. O. HILL
Peebles, 28 August-3 September
The summer field meeting (28 August to 3 September), based on Peebles, offered about a dozen members an opportunity to explore a bryologically little-known part of the borders and to suffer intermittent soakings. During the meeting Dumfries (v.-c. 72), Peebles (v.-c. 78), Selkirk (v.-c. 79) and Midlothian (v.-c. 83) were visited.
29 August, which was entirely spent in v.-c. 78, started in slight drizzle with a visit to the steep-sided valley of the Lyne Water above West Linton where records included Hypnum cupressiforme var. filiforme* and Dicranum strictum* as epiphytes, Marchantia polymorpha var. alpestris* and Hygroamblystegium fluviatile on rocks by the river, Eurhynchium praelongum var. stokesii* on a steep bank, Plagiothecium laetum* on the roots of a sapling, Metzgeria pubescens and Mnium stellare on the Brecchia rock faces by the river and Ditrichum cylindricum*, Barbula trifaria*, Pohlia delicatula* and P. lutescens* on disturbed clay soil near the river just above West Linton. After lunch a distinctly damp tramp across White Moss, a partially drained raised bog, was rewarded by Sphagnum fimbriatum*, Riccardia latifrons*, Cephaloziella hampeana*, C. starkei* and Calypogeia muellerana*. Respects were paid to Camptothecium nitens, growing in some abundance in a mire at the bottom end of an apparently undistinguished field at Medwyn Mains. Splachnum ampullaceum*, Mnium seligeri*, Leptobryum pyriforme* and Trichocolea tomentella were also recorded. Other sites visited included some spoil heaps near Lamancha on which Ditrichum flexicaule* was collected and the Whim House Estate where Dicranella cerviculata* and Eurhynchium murale* were recorded.
[* New vice-county record.]
The waterfalls and corries around Grey Mare's Tail. Moffat (v.-c. 72) had been suggested for 30 August. Four people did indeed attempt a forlorn trip up the waterfalls where Plectocolea subelliptica* and Brachydontium trichodes were seen, but the wind and rain put an end to further exploration. One party then stopped near St Mary's Loch (v.-c. 79) where Pellia neesiana*, Riccardia incurvata*, Fossombronia wondraczekii*, Haplomitrium hookeri* and Pohlia bulbifera* were found. At the east end of Talla Reservoir (v.-c. 78) the same party recorded Fossombronia incurva*, Atrichum tenellum*, Archidium alternifolium*, Trichostomum brachydontium*, Pohlia rothii*, P. bulbifera* and, just above the reservoir, Campylopus fragilis*. In the area around the waterfalls above Talla Water Lophozia alpestris*, Barbilophozia hatcheri*, Plectocolea subelliptica*, Radula lindbergiana, Dicranella subulata*, Campylopus atrovirens*, Plagiobryum zierii and Neckera crispa* were seen. Other parties recorded for v.-c. 79 Riccia sorocarpa* and Fossombronia wondraczekii on bare earth and Nowellia curvifolia, Orthotrichum striatum and O. stramineum as epiphytes in Black Andrew Wood, Hygroamblystegium tenax* from rocks by Yarrow Water, Trichostomum sinuosum*, Barbula spadicea, Hygroamblystegium fluviatile and Brachythecium glareosum, the last on a wall, in Hareswood Glen. Tortula papillosa, Orthotrichum pulchellum and Pohlia delicatula* at Essenside and lastly Calypogeia trichomanis* in a bog at Woll Rig, West of Ashkirk.
31 August was set aside for recording and the party split up to give a more effective cover of unrecorded squares. One party concentrated on Peebles and Midlothian, first visiting Glentress (v.-c. 78) where Calypogeia neesiana var. neesiana* was recorded on a peaty bank, Pellia neesiana* was seen in a roadside flush and Thuidium delicatulum* and Hypnum lindbergii were found by the road. On damp gravelly ground by the track leading to Broad Law Quarry (v.-c. 83) Pohlia lutescens*, P. gracilis* and Bryum ruderale* were found whilst a sandy bank in the quarry furnished Lophozia alpestris, Scapania scandica* and Dicranella subulata. Old lime workings at Middleton proved to be too dry to provide much interest; Aloina aloides and Barbula trifaria were however seen. Two stops at Gladhouse Reservoir brought to light Bryum bornholmense*, Pohlia bulbifera, Fossombronia incurva, Riccia beyrichiana and R. sorocarpa on exposed mud or amongst gravel. A short visit to Cowieslinn (v.-c. 78) yielded Plagiothecium curvifolium* on a tree stump and Frullania fragilifolia*, Lophozia alpestris and Plectocolea obovata on rocks by the waterfall. In v.-c. 79 other members recorded Ditrichum cylindricum*, Grimmia alpicola var. rivularis, Pohlia lutescens* and Hygroamblystegium tenax from around Standing Craig Reservoir, Fissidens rufulus* and Eurhynchium praelongum var. stokesii* from Caddon Water, Dicranella staphylina* from a track at High Sunderland, Lophozia bicrenata*, Barbilophozia hatcheri*, Cephaloziella starkei* and Brachythecium albicans* from a quarry between Galashiels and Clovenfords. In the Quair Water valley (v.-c. 78) they found Cephaloziella rubella*, Orthotrichum rivulare, O. lyellii and Hygroamblystegium fluviatile from Quair Water.
1 September started unpromisingly but one party, undeterred by the wind and rain, explored Bitch Craig at the head of the Manor Water valley (v.-c. 78). Here rock and scree habitats offered Lophozia alpestris, Barbilophozia hatcheri, Douinia ovata, Scapania scandica*, Dicranum blyttii, Cynodontium jenneri*, Rhabdoweisia denticulata and Plagiothecium denticulatum var. obtusifolium*. Meanwhile, one member, who had been put off by the heavy rain, found Haplomitrium hookeri* well established on a damp patch of muddy gravel by the Manor Water. Associated species included Riccardia incurvata*, Fossombronia incurva, Plectocolea paroica and Pohlia bulbifera. Bryum microerythrocarpum* and B. tenuisetum* were also recorded from patchily grassy hummocks near Manor Farm. On the return journey stops were made by the River Tweed, W. of Manor Sware where Barbilophozia hatcheri, Scapania subalpina and Orthotrichum rivulare were seen. In the grounds of the castle 1 mile West of Peebles Porella platyphylla*. Pohlia lutescens and Pterogonium gracile* were recorded. Those who chose v.-c. 79 for their venue were rewarded by Cephalozia bicuspidata var. lammersiana* and Sphagnum subsecundum var. auriculatum* at Witchie Knowe and Riccardia sinuata* in the valley of the River Yarrow at Lewenshope.
The morning of 2 September was spent exploring the Old Red Sandstone gorge of the River North Esk at Roslin (v.-c. 83). Orthodontium gracile was the undoubted highlight but Calypogeia neesiana var. meylanii* and Tetraphis browniana were also seen on shaded rock faces whilst fallen trees offered suitable habitats for Nowellia curvifolia, Dicranum strictum and Orthodontium lineare. After lunch the rain intensified and in a veritable downpour one member was deposited at Auchencorth Moss, a bleak bog on the borders of v.-c.s 78 and 83. Commendable perseverance was repaid by the discovery of Cephaloziella subdentata*, Calypogeia sphagnicola* and Thuidium delicatulum* (v.-c. 83) and Lepidozia trichoclados* (v.-c. 78), Riccardia latifrons, Lepidozia sylvatica and Calypogeia neesiana var. neesiana were also recorded. The remainder of the party visited the more sheltered valley at Nether Habbie's Howe at the invitation of the Misses Maclagen of Newhall House. At the lower end where the River North Esk cuts through sandstone Calypogeia neesiana var. meylanii*, Eucladium verticillatum* and Hypnum cupressiforme var. mammillatum* were recorded for v.-c. 78. On the limestone further upstream Metzgeria pubescens and Anomodon viticulosus were seen. On the return journey to Peebles Baddinsgill Reservoir was visited and before the party was politely asked to leave, Ephemerum serratum var. serratum* was collected on exposed mud.
The final day, 3 September, which mercifully remained dry, was set aside for recording squares not previously covered. Three members selected the Ettrick Water valley in v.-c. 79. At the head of the valley somewhat basic rather exposed ground at about 1200 ft altitude around Longhope Burn was explored. On a track and adjacent peaty banks Pohlia rothii*, Campylopus fragilis* and Scapania scandica* were noted. Lophozia alpestris, Leiocolea bantriensis, Nardia geoscyphus*, Sphagnum contortum and Thuidium delicatulum* were found by the burn. During a lunch stop at Nether Phawhope Calypogeia muellerana*, Plectocolea paroica*, Scapania subalpina. Frullania fragilifolia* and Hyocomium flagellare* were recorded on rocks by the Ettrick Water. Bryum bornholmense* was seen by the road. At Brockhoperig Funaria attenuata* was growing luxuriantly in the lee of the river bank. Sphagnum teres and Marsupella funckii were also seen on peaty humus. The rocks at the junction of Cossarshill Burn and Ettrick Water provided a suitable habitat for Hygrobiella laxifolia* and Plectocolea subelliptica*. Orthotrichum pulchellum* and O. striatum* were collected on trees nearby.
The remaining members explored areas in v.-c. 78 closer to Peebles. In Meldon Burn valley. Sphagnum subsecundum var. inundatum*, S. teres, Andreaea rothii var. crassinervia*, Grimmia stirtonii* and Rhodobryum roseum were recorded. Ptilidium pulcherrimum was noted on an alder by Eddleston Water. Metzgeria fruticulosa, Dicranum strictum and Orthotrichum pulchellum were seen in the grounds of Portmore House.
Although few rare species were seen during the meeting the relatively large number of new records, totalling over 100, indicates that the Peebles area still offers worthwhile ground, particularly in subalpine habitats, for bryological exploration.
D. F. CHAMBERLAIN
Cambridge, 2-3 October
The autumn meeting was held on the weekend of 2 and 3 October in the Botany School of Cambridge University, by kind permission of Professor P. W. Brian, F. R. S. Some forty-five members attended on the Saturday when the President introduced six speakers, summaries of whose papers are given below.
Dr D. BRIGGS: 'Heavy metal tolerance in bryophytes'.
Large amounts of lead and other heavy metals are released by some industrial processes and it is known that these metals accumulate in soils and vegetation downwind of industrial areas. There is also published evidence that similar accumulation takes place at roadsides. Very little is known, however, about lead pollution of plants and soils in cities, although the number of possible sources of lead pollution in urban areas suggests that high levels of lead might occur.
An investigation of Marchantia polymorpha in western Scotland has revealed high levels of lead in city populations (e.g. 5333 ppm dry weight at St Enoch Square, Glasgow) and in populations remote from towns but near main roads (e.g. 7792 ppm dry weight by the Glasgow-Carlisle Road near Beattock) while lower levels are often recorded in country districts relatively remote from traffic (e.g. 149 ppm dry weight at a disused paper mill, Milngavie). Similar results have been obtained with Bryum argenteum and Funaria hygrometrica.
A study of lead tolerance has been carried out with several Marchantia populations. On the basis of gemma growth on agar containing lead, evidence has been found that city populations are much more tolerant of lead than those found growing in relatively uncontaminated country districts.
Dr H. J. B. BIRKS: 'Some aspects of the bryophyte flora of Skye'.
The bryophyte flora of Skye, the largest island of the Inner Hebrides consists at present of 372 mosses and 182 hepatics. The flora is extremely diverse, both ecologically and phytogeographically and this has been correlated with the varied geology, topography and climate of the island. The phytogeographical affinities of the flora are broadly similar to those of the phanerogam flora with a predominance of Atlantic, sub-Atlantic. Continental-Northern, Northern-Montane and Arctic-Alpine elements. The flora is remarkable for the large number of southern Atlantic species growing at or near their northern limits on Skye, for example Acrobolbus wilsonii, Adelanthus decipiens, Jubula hutchinsiae, Lejeunea mandonii, Marchesinia mackaii, Radula carringtonii, Sematophyllum novae-caesareae, the pteridophyte Hymenophyllum tunbridgense and the lichen Sticta canariensis.
Variations in the distribution patterns within Skye are related to climatic variables and to geological differences: there are several species restricted on Skye to limestone rocks and to basalt or gabbro, whereas several occur on a wide variety of basic substrata.
The role that bryophytes play in the vegetation of Skye is shown by their phytosociological importance in the characterization of Associations within the Oxycocco-Sphagnetea Br.-BI. & R. Tx. 1943 and the Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae (Nordhagen 1936) R. Tx. 1937. Each alliance within these classes has a distinctive bryophyte assemblage, for example alliance Eriophoron latifoliae Br.-BI. & R. Tx. 1943 is characterized on Skye by Campylium stellatum, Cinclidium stygium, Drepanocladus revolvens, Fissidens adianthoides, Riccardia pinguis and Scorpidium scorpioides.
Mr N. J. COLLINS: 'Bryophyte growth and productivity in the Antarctic'.
On Signy Island some ground is free of snow and ice for 3-4 months of each year and extensive communities of bryophytes and lichens have developed. Cushions of Andreaea and Grimmia species occur in the drier, more exposed habitats with least winter snow cover, while carpets of Brachythecium, Calliergon and Drepanocladus species and hummocks of Brachythecium cf. subplicatum (Hamp.) Jaeg. and Bryum algens Card. occur in habitats with the greatest winter snow depths and with melt water available throughout the summer. The turf-forming species Polytrichum alpestre and Chorisodontium aciphyllum (Hook. f. & Wils.) Broth, have produced extensive semi-ombrogenous peat banks. With the exception of C. aciphyllum, all these species show a periodicity of growth which is marked by morphological features.
Production varies both between and within species, even over short distances. Stems of cushion forming species grow up to 0·5 cm in a season, but large cushions are rare, so turnover must be rapid. This length increment is similar to that of moss turfs where production is between 300 and 500 g/m2/season. Carpets and hurnmocks exhibit the highest production. attaining some 900 g/m2/season, corresponding to length increments of 3-4 cm. There is. however, little build up of peat. so either breakdown and physical removal are rapid, or the carpets are of recent origin. In contrast, the peat banks grow more slowly but decomposition is negligible. Once these banks come to lie above the winter snow as a result of moss growth or of climatic change, they are eroded or become encrusted with lichens.
At the present time the annual melt is becoming progressively greater and freed surfaces are colonized by carpets. The initially abundant water supply is restricted as the carpets are colonized by turf-forming species and also as the melt occurs more rapidly and earlier in the summer. Cyclic changes result in cycles of growth of bryophytes, lichen encrustation and or erosion, interspersed with continuous snow cover.
Professor S. INOUE: 'B-chromosomes in Lesquereuxia robusta Lindb. '.
Populations of L. robusta from central and southern Japan have been studied cytologically. The chromosome number (n=11) and karyotype reported in the literature were confirmed for most of the samples examined, but in some cases abnormal karyotypes were found. The abnormalities involved the addition of between one and four chromosomes to the normal complement, such chromosomes being either metacentric or telocentric, but always smaller than the m-chromosomes of normal cells. Another distinction between the extra chromosomes and m-chromosomes was that the latter were heteropycnotic in the interphase nucleus (they have therefore been designated m(h)-chromosomes).
As a result of these observations it was proposed that the additional chromosomes could be described as B-chromosomes even in an investigation of somatic cells. Further studies of the meiotic behaviour of these chromosomes would be most useful.
Dr J. G. DUCKETT: 'Spermatogenesis in bryophytes'.
The contribution made by the electron microscope towards our understanding of the male gamete of bryophytes was reviewed. New observations on spermatogenesis in Anthoceros laevis were compared with published reports on the fine structure of moss and liverwort spermatozoids.
The plastids of Anthoceros undergo a remarkable series of changes during spermatogenesis. In contrast to those of normal vegetative cells, the plastids in early generations of spermatogenous cells lack pyrenoids and have few internal lamellae. Plastid division is in step with mitosis in the spermatogenous cells, so each spermatocyte has one plastid. With successive mitoses the plastids become progressively smaller until those in the young spermatocytes are ovoid structures 1-2 µm in diameter (cf. over 10 µm long in vegetative cells), indistinguishable from the spermatocyte plastids of mosses and liverworts. Metamorphosis of the spermatocyte involves precise and highly co-ordinated organelle differentiation and re-arrangement. In the young spermatocytes the two flagellar basal bodies with the underlying microtubular band and lamellar layers of the multilayered structure (MLS) lie as an integrated unit at the periphery of the cell. This is equivalent to the blepharoplast of light microscopists. The nucleus migrates into contact with them and forms an anterior projection. Elongation of the nucleus then begins and the microtubular band progressively extends beyond the lamellar layers of the MLS around its outer surface. Beneath the lamellar layers at the anterior tip of the nucleus lies a complex mitochondrion, the apical body. Within the concavity of the elongating nucleus lies the limosphere: the spermatocyte plastid surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath. As nuclear elongation continues the clearly defined partitions of the lamellae of the MLS become occluded and the limosphere migrates to the posterior tip of the nucleus. In mature spermatozoids the chromatin in the sinistrally-coiled rod-like nucleus is completely condensed and the lamellar layers of the MLS are absent. The microtubular band forms the skeleton of the motile gamete in the absence of a cell wall. The plastid contains large amounts of starch. Since there is no evidence that this is utilized as an energy source during periods of prolonged motility it was suggested that the amyloplasts enable the motile gametes to respond to gravitational forces.
Dr A. D. HORRILL: 'Some aspects of the conservation of bryophytes'.
Conservation of the British bryophyte flora must fulfill two objectives: protection of rare species and preservation of habitats where bryophytes form an important component of the vegetation. In Great Britain there is a considerable number of species dependent on an oceanic climate and these are particularly valuable subjects for research into climatic change with respect to both geography and time.
Excluding climatic change, the dangers to the bryophyte flora are all of human origin, either by deliberate collecting or as an incidental consequence of other activities. Air pollution, land drainage, urban development, felling and replanting of native woodlands and public pressure on areas such as sand dunes all reduce bryological variety. Collecting for horticultural purposes is a practice more unsightly than dangerous, but rare species may easily be gathered with common plants. Selective collection by bryologists is more dangerous as it is often concentrated on well-known localities, so the building up of extensive private herbaria is surely to be deplored when large public herbaria are available. Photography might well take the place of collecting for a large number of the more readily identified species.
Bryologists could do much to help by using their specialized knowledge to advise conservation organizations on the designation of important sites and by providing information on the environmental needs and distribution patterns of the rarer species.
After discussion the President brought the session to a close by thanking the speakers and also Dr H. L. K. Whitehouse and Dr H. J. B. Birks who had acted as local secretaries for the meeting.
Field meeting to Bradfield Woods, Bury St. Edmonds
On 3 October Dr O. Rackham led members into the Bradfield Woods nature reserve near Bury St Edmunds. Suffolk (v.-c. 26). This reserve comprises Felsham Hall Wood and part of the adjoining Monks' Park Wood. Recent finds in Felsham Hall Wood have included Plagiochila aspleniodes var. major, Lejeunea cavifolia, Sphagnum subsecundum var. auriculatum, Isopterygium seligeri and Plagiothecium latebricola. The Plagiochila and the Plagiothecium were refound, and other species seen included Calypogeia arguta* in a shaded ditch, Sphagnum subsecundum var. inundatum in damp hollows. Bryum ruderale* on a path. Tetraphis pellucida on stumps and Plagiothecium curvifolium* at tree bases. In arable fields near the wood Sphaerocarpos sp., Riccia glauca, R. sorocarpa, Ditrichum cylindricum*, Dicranella schreberana, D. staphylina, Physcomitrella patens, Ephemerum serratum var. minutissimum*, Bryum klinggraeffii* and B. violaceum* were found. Subsequently, some members stopped near Fornham St Martin just north of Bury St Edmunds, where Physcomitrella patens. B. klinggraeffii and B. violaceum were found in arable fields, Barbula trifaria and Bryum radiculosum* on a bridge and Eurhynchium megapolitanum amongst grass. Some members saw Ricciocarpus natans in a ditch at Wicken Fen (v.-c. 29).
[* New vice-county record.]
G. C. S. CLARKE