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Conservation Genetics Resources:

The aim of this page web is to provide an access point to the variety of resources relevant to conservation genetics that are available on the web for the British Flora.

Click here to access RBGE's Genetical Flora of the British Isles database.

Genetic information

Where can I find information on the

  • genetic studies that have been done of the British flora? Click here
  • the genome size (C-value) and ploidy levels of Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Pteridophytes, Bryophytes and Algae? Click here
  • the chromosome number of plants species native and alien to the British Isles ? Click here

Where can I find some general conceptual reviews on
What are the key journals that publish papers on conservation genetics and the British Flora? Are there any UK conferences and workshops that focus on conservation genetics?

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Other relevant information on the British Flora

Where can I find

Where can I access the
  • Ecological Flora of the British Isles? Click here
  • Biological Flora of the British Isles? Click here

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Conservation genetics overviews

Frankham, R, Ballou, JD and Briscoe, DA (2002) Introduction to conservation genetics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge , UK .

Hedrick, PW (2001). Conservation genetics: where are we now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 629-636.

Frankham, R (2003). Genetics and conservation. Comptes Rendues Biologies 326: S22-S29.

DeSalle, R and Amata, G (2004). The expansion of conservation genetics. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 702-712.

Falk, DA and Holsinger, KE (1991) Genetics and the conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press. New York .

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Importance of genetic variation (and its loss)

Barrett, SCH and Kohn, CR (1991) Genetic and evolutionary consequences of small population size in plants: implications for conservation. In: Genetics and the conservation of rare plants pp 3-30, eds D.A. Falk and K.E. Holsinger. Oxford University Press. New York .

Reed, DH (2005). Relationship between population size and fitness. Conservation Biology 19: 563-568.

Spielman, D, Brook, BW and Frankham, R (2004). Most species are not driven to extinction before genetic factors impact them. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 15261-15264.

Keller, LF and Waller, DM (2002). Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends In Ecology and Evolution 17: 230-241.

Hedrick, PW and Kalinowski, ST (2000). Inbreeding depression in conservation biology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 139-162.

Ennos, R, Worrell, R, Arkle, P and Malcolm, D (2000). Genetic variation and conservation of British native trees and shrubs: Current knowledge and policy implications . Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Pemberton, J (2004). Measuring inbreeding depression in the wild: the old ways are the best. Trends In Ecology and Evolution 19: 613-615.

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Distribution of genetic variation

Gitzendanner , MA and Soltis, PA (2000). Patterns of genetic variation in rare and widespread plant congeners. American Journal of Botany 87: 783-792.

Lesica, P and Allendorf, FW (1992) Are small populations of plants worth preserving? Conservation Biology 6 : 135-139.

Hamrick, JL. Godt, MJW, Murawski, DA and Loveless, MD (1991) Correlations between species traits and allozyme diversity: implications for conservation biology. In: Genetics and the conservation of rare plants pp 75-86, eds D.A. Falk and K.E. Holsinger. Oxford University Press. New York .

Nybom, H (2006) Comparison of different nuclear DNA markers for estimating intraspecific genetic diversity in plants. Molecular Ecology 13: 1143-1155.

Garnier-Gere, PH and Ades, PK (2001) Environmental surrogates for predicting and conserving adaptive genetic variability in tree species. Conservation Biology 15: 1632-1644.

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Genetic variation and climate change

Jump, AS and Penuelas, J (2005) Running to stand still: adaption and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters 8: 1010-1020.


Landscape genetics

Manel, S, Schwartz, MK, Luikart, G and Taberlet, P (2003). Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution18: 189-197.


Restoration genetics

Falk, DA, Knapp, EE and Guerrant, EO (2001). An introduction to restoration genetics. Report for Plant Conservation Alliance , Bureau of Land Management, US Department of Interior. pdf

Hufford, KM and Mazer, SJ (2003). Plant ecotypes: genetic differentiation in the age of ecological restoration. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 147-155.

Tallmon, DA, Luikart, G and Waples, RS (2004). The alluring simplicity and complex reality of genetic rescue. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 489-496.

Hedrick, P (2005). 'Genetic restoration:' a more comprehensive perspective than 'genetic rescue'. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:109.

Leisica, P and Allendorf, FW (1999) Ecological genetics and restoration of plant communities: mix or match? Restoration Ecology 7: 42-50.

Mckay, JK, Christian, CE, Harrison, S and Rice, KJ (2005) "How local is local?" - A review of practical and conceptual issues in the genetics of restoration. Restoration Ecology 13: 432-440.

Wilkinson, DM (2001). Is local provenance important in habitat creation? Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 1371-1373.

Brown, ADH and Briggs, JD (1991) Sampling strategies for genetic variation in ex-situ collections of endangered plants species. In: Genetics and the conservation of rare plants pp 99-119, eds D.A. Falk and K.E. Holsinger. Oxford University Press. New York .

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Molecular markers

General Reviews

Schlotterer, C (2004) The evolution of molecular markers - just a matter of fashion? Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 63-69.

Sunnocks, P (2000) Efficient genetic markers for population biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 199-203.

Organelle DNA

Petit, RJ, Duminil, J, Fineschi, S, Hampe, A, Salvini, D and Vendramin, GG (2005). Comparative organization of chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear diversity in plant populations. Molecular Ecology 14: 689-701.

Ennos, RA, Sinclair, WT, Hu, X-S and Langdon, A (1999) Using organelle markers to elucidate the history, ecology and evolution of plant populations. In: Molecular Systematics and Plant Evolution pp1-19 eds PM Hollingsworth, RM Batemand and RJ Gornall. Taylor and Francis. London.

Provan, J, Powell, W and Hollingsworth, PM (2001). Chloroplast microsatellites: new tools for studies in plant ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 142-147.


Mueller, UG and LaReesa Wolfenbarger, L (1999) AFLP genotyping and fingerprinting. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 389-394.

Fay, MF, Cowan, RS and Leitch, IJ (2005) The effects of nuclear DNA content (C-value) on the quality and utility of AFLP fingerprints. Annals of Botany 95: 237-246.


Jarne, P and Lagoda PJL. 1996. Microsatellites, from molecules to populations and back. Trends in Evolution and Ecology 11: 424-429.

Squirrell, Hollingsworth, PM, Woodhead, M, Russell, J, Lowe, AJ, Gibby, M and Powell, W (2003) How much effort is required to isolate nuclear microsatellites from plants? Molecular Ecology 12: 1339-1348.

Population genomics

Luikart, G, England , PR, Tallmon, D, Jordan, S and Taberlet, P (2003) The power and promise of population genomics: from genotyping to genome typing. Nature Reviews Genetics 4: 981-994.

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Data analysis

Manel, S, Gaggiotto, OE and Waples, RS (2005). Assignment methods: matching biological questions with appropriate techniques. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 136-142.

Pearse , DE and Crandall, KA (2004). Beyond FST: Analysis of population genetic data for conservation. Conservation Genetics 5: 585-602.

Hedrick, PW (2005) A standardized genetic differentiation measure Evolution 59: 1633-1638.

Luikart, G and England , PR (1999) Statistical analysis of microsatellite DNA data. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14 : 253-256.



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Page last updated: July 2006 (J.Squirrell)