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Meetings of the BBS - 1950s


Annual Meeting 1950, Totnes, 13-18 April

The 1950 Annual Meeting was held in April at Totnes, Devonshire, and attended by about forty members.

The first excursion, on 13 April, was to the wooded valley of the River Dart. Members left the coaches at Holne Bridge, near Ashburton. and walked upstream to New Bridge, a distance of about three miles. The rocks of the river bed bore an interesting flora, including Grimmia alpicola var. rivularis. and small quantities of Madotheca porella, Isothecium holtii, Eurhynchium alopecurum and Fontinalis antipyretica var. gracilis.* The river-bank and nearby rocks yielded Diphyscium foliosum var. acutifolium, Cynodontium bruntonii, Fissidens curnowii, F. serrulatus, F. polyphyllus, Atrichum crispum, Eurhynchium praelongum var. stokesii, Lejeunea lamacerina, Blepharostoma trichophyllum, and a small patch of Plagiochila asplenioides in fruit. Neckera pumila in fruit and Metzgeria furcata var. fruticulosa were found on trees. Bryum murale was noticed at New Bridge, while above it were Aplozia pumila, A. tristis and Alicularia compressa. Aulacomnium androgynum and Calypogeia arguta were also seen during the excursion.

[* New to south Devon (V.C. 3).]

On the way back to Tomes the party stopped at Riverford Bridge, near Staverton, and walked upstream to look for Cryphaea lamayana, found here by Tozer a century ago 'on stones in running water and on the stems of trees, frequently overflowed'. The site was unpromising, and no Cryphaea was seen. The river was evidently somewhat polluted by sewage at this point, and perhaps this may have exterminated it. Among the species seen here were Leucodon sciuroides, Eurhynchium swartzii var. rigidum* and E. megapolitanum.

The next day's excursion was to Wistman's Wood, on Dartmoor. This well-known oak wood is dominated by Quercus robur, growing under extremely unfavourable conditions, the trees being exceedingly gnarled and stunted, with their roots embedded between granite boulders. The wood was of greater ecological than bryological interest, but Rhytidiadelphus loreus was fruiting very freely, and Antitrichia curtipendula, which was plentiful, was also found in fruit, though hardly in the abundance reported by Dixon in the Handbook. The flora of the tree trunks and branches included Cephaloziella starkii, Douinia ovata and Plagiochila punctata. Lophozia attenuata* was noticed among Scapania gracilis on a boulder, and Dicranum scottianum was present in small quantity at the north end of the wood. Alicularia compressa was growing submerged in the Dart below the wood, and on the banks of the river were many species of Sphagnum and also Atrichum crispum and Polytrichum alpestre. On the moor nearby were found Campylopus flexuosus var. zonatus,* Leptodontium flexifolium, Rhabdoweissia denticulata, Thuidium delicatulum, Aplozia sphaerocarpa and, in a Leucobryum tussock, Cephaloziella subdentata.*

On 15 April the Society visited the coast to the south of Totnes and explored the cliffs between Bolt Tail and Salcombe. The cliffs were rather disappointingly dry, but nevertheless a number of interesting species were found. These included Madotheca laevigata var. thuja, Lophozia attenuata, Campylopus fragilis, C. introflexus, Pottia bryoides, P. crinita var. viridifolia, Bryum bicolor var. gracilentum, Scleropodium illecebrum and fruiting Archidium alternifolium. The rocks were well covered with species of Frullania and Grimmia, including F. fragilifolia, F. germana,* G. subsquarrosa and fruiting G. laevigata. Riccia sorocarpa* was seen on a footpath.

On the next day, Sunday, there was no organized excursion, and members made their own arrangements. The chief find of the day, and indeed of the meeting, was Fissidens monguilloni, new to the British Isles, found in fruit by Mr Norkett by the Dart at Staverton. Other members had satisfactory, though less sensational, finds. The banks of the lanes around Totnes bore an interesting flora including Lejeunea lamacerina, Fissidens algarvicus, Ditrichum cylindricum, Epipterygium tozeri, Schistostega pennata in fruit, Scleropodium caespitosum, Eurhynchium schleicheri and Scorpiurium circinatum. Also seen in the district were Cololejeunea rossettiana, Marchesinia mackaii, Leptodon smithii and Tortella nitida. Two members visited the limestone cliffs at Babbacombe, Torquay, and found Scapania aspera, Pottia starkeana, P. recta, Gymnostomum calcareum, Eucladium verticillatum and fruiting plants of Neckera crispa.

Up to this time the weather had been very fine and sunny, but on the Monday, when the Society visited the valley of the Teign at Fingle Bridge near Drewsteignton, it rained almost continuously. The Teign valley is here rather similar to that of the Dart, visited on the first day, and many of the same species were seen, including Isothecium holtii, fruiting Eurhynchium praelongum var. stokesii and a great profusion of Madotheca porella; but there were a number of additional species including Fissidens rivularis, Orthotrichum striatum, 0. rivulare, Rhodobryum roseum, Jubula hutchinsiae and fruiting plants of Frullania tamarisci. On the rocks of the valley side below the bridge there were several species of Grimmia. including G. subsquarrosa and G. montana, the latter fruiting freely in the only British locality from which fruit is known.

The last excursion, on 18 April, was to the Becka Falls near Manaton, on a tributary stream of the River Bovey. For most members the day was rather disappointing bryologically, though Miss Lobley made a very fine discovery, Nowellia curvifolia* on a rotting tree trunk. This is a considerable extension to the known range of this species in Britain, the nearest previously recorded localities being in north Wales. Among other species found were Aplozia tristis, Ditrichum cylindricum, Dicranella schreberi and Thamnium alopecurum in fruit.

The meeting was a great success owing to the excellent arrangements made by Mr Wallace and Mr Peterken, who most thoroughly deserved the thanks of members taking part for a most profitable and enjoyable week.


Annual Meeting 1951, Oxford, 29-31 March

This year the annual Meeting was held in Oxford and attended by over forty members who assembled on Thursday evening, 29 March, in the new building of the Imperial Forestry Institute. Full advantage was taken of the excellent facilities for display of specimens, and an interesting exhibition was on view of fresh and dried bryophytes, diagrams, photographs and microscopic slides. Special mention must be made of a series of hand-coloured lantern slides of British mosses made by our member Mr R. H. Hall, which were much admired. Dr E. W. Jones gave an introductory talk on 'The Bryology of the Oxford District'.

Two excursions were arranged; the first to Watlington Hill, a steep escarpment of the Chilterns rising to 794 ft. Chalk bryophytes were abundant and the following species were seen: Ditrichum flexicaule, Encalypta streptocarpa, Pottia recta, Phascum curvicollum, Tortella tortuosa, Pleurochaete squarrosa (rare), Trichostomum crispulum, Thuidium hystricosum, T. abietinum, T. philiberti, Climacium dendroides, Entodon orthocarpus, Lophozia turbinata, Scapania aspera and Frullania tamarisci. On the way a stop was made to examine an old stone wall at Cuddesdon, where Ceratodon purpureus var. conicus was growing in abundance with Aloina ambigua and Pottia lanceolata. On the return a short halt was made at Pishill Bank, a wood on acid soil where Eucalyx hyalinus was growing on damp tracks with other small hepatics, Polytrichum nanum, Mnium stellare and Bartramia pomiformis (rare in Oxfordshire) were seen, but Buxbaumia aphylla discovered here in 1947 could not be refound. A few minutes were then spent at Howe Wood where Mnium stellare was not uncommon with Eurhynchium schleicheri and Brachythecium glareosum. In the evening E. A. Schelpe read a paper 'The Bryophytes of fallow fields' describing his researches on the subject during the past two years.

On the second day the excursion was to Cothill and Frilford, a short stop being made to see Eurhynchium megapolitanum fruiting on a sandy roadside bank at Foxcombe Hill. Cothill Marsh was very full of water owing to the recent heavy rains, and many species were in fine fruit, the most interesting being: Fissidens adianthoides, Mnium pseudopunctatum, M. seligeri, Philonotis calcarea, Campylium stellatum, Cratoneuron commutatum, Drepanocladus revolvens var. intermedius, Sphagnum acutifolium, S. plumulosum and Chiloscyphus pallescens. Ctenidium molluscum was growing on very boggy ground.

Several of the preceding species occurred again at Frilford with Acrocladium giganteum and Plagiothecium silvaticum var, roeseanum. The party was then taken to Chawley Brick Pits. Disused since 1936, these greensand and clay pits produce a remarkable collection of bryophytes of which the following were seen: Sphagnum squarrosum, Polytrichum urnigerum, Dicranella cerviculata, Rhacomitrium canescens, Bryum intermedium, Drepanocladus aduncus, Aneura sinuata, A. pinguis, A. multifida, Lophozia capitata, Eucalyx hyalinus, Aplozia crenulata, Alicularia geoscyphus, Sphenolobus exsectiformis, Blasia pusilla and Cephaloziella hampeana. One group then walked to Hen Wood where Leptodontium flexifolium was fruiting.

Although no new vice-county records were made, the three-day meeting was thoroughly enjoyed by all members and at the Annual General Meeting a hearty vote of thanks was passed to Dr E. W. Jones for the excellent way in which he had arranged the programme.


Autumn Meeting 1951, Kerry, 2-14 September

The autumn meeting of the Society was held in Kerry in the Republic of Ireland from 2 to 14 September. The first week's base was Glenbeigh, on the shores of Dingle Bay, and that for the second week Waterville, on Ballinskelligs Bay; both on the west coast.

The meeting was attended by twenty-nine members, of whom sixteen stayed on for the second week. With the exception of the day at Killarney (Torc Cascade and Derricunihy Wood V.C. H. 2) all the gatherings were made in South Kerry V.C. H. 1.

In the following reports: * An asterisk indicates a new vice-county record.
+ A cross indicates new to Ireland.

2 September. The first day's excursions, in good weather, were short and within walking distance of Glenbeigh. In the morning Cummergorm Glen, a steep-sided glen facing towards the sea, was visited with the following results, Lophozia silvicola,+ and also: Riccardia latifrons, Eucalyx hyalinus, Cephalozia francisci, Nowellia curvifolia (damp humus), Madotheca porella, Odontoschisma denudatum, Adelanthus decipiens and Dicranum fuscescens.*

The afternoon was spent examining the walls and verges of the road to Ross Behy, where the first major finds were made: Riccia warnstorfii+ and Fissidens algarvicus+ (with a few old capsules); others were: Riccia glauca, R. sorocorpa, Cephaloziella hampeana,* Anthoceros laevis, Ditrichum cylindricum,* Pseudephemerum nitidum, Acaulon muticum, Pohlia rothii* and P. annotina.*

3 September . A full-day trip was made to Blackstones Bridge at the head of Caragh Lough, where the oakwoods, outcrops and boulders were carefully examined. The weather proved somewhat damp. Some of the expected rarities of Kerry were found here, among them: Lepidozia silvatica,+ Riccia warnstorfii, Metzgeria conjugata, Fossombronia dumortieri,* Plagiochila asplenioides var. major,* Lophocolea fragrans, Harpanthus scutatus, Adelanthus decipiens, Telaranea nematodes, Colura calyptrifolia, Cololejeunea microscopica, C. minutissima, Lejeunea flava, Frullania germana (on hazel and walls), Fissidens curnowii, Archidium alternifolium, Dicranodontium denudatum,, Rhacomitrium canescens,* Zygodon conoideus,, Eurhynchium praelongum var. stokesii,* Sematophyllum demissum and S. novae-caesareae.

4 September. The day's journey was to Coomasaharn Lake and its surroundings, lying in one of the corries of Teemoyle Mountain, some six miles south-west of Glenbeigh. Coomasaharn itself lies at the foot of steep rocky slopes rising to over 2000 ft. The rain increased in the afternoon and the majority of the party gave up shortly after lunch, leaving the hardier spirits to explore Lough Cullen, a small lake in a subsidiary corrie above Coomasaharn. Just prior to this Bartramidula wilsoni,, was found below Lough Cullen. Other finds were: Preissia quadrata, Marsupella aquatica,* Anastrepta orcadensis, Plagiochila tridenticulata, Harpanthus scutatus, Nowellia curvifolia, Bazzania pearsoni,* Lepidozia pearsoni, Mastigophora woodsii, Scapania ornithopodioides, Radula aquilegia, Cololejeunea microscopica, Lejeunea diversiloba, Fissidens curnowii, Rhabdoweissia crenulata,*, Campylopus setifolius, C. schwarzii, Barbula ferruginascens, Gymnostomum aeruginosum, Leptodontium flexifolium,* Grimmia torquata, Pohlia elongata, Breutelia chrysocoma (one plant in fruit), Neckera crispa, Orthothecium intricatum and Sematophyllum novae-caesareae.

The remainder of the afternoon and evening was spent in an attempt to get dry.

5 September. The day being dry if dull, members were still drying out, and the morning was spent in individual gathering round Glenbeigh, where Sphagnum fimbriatum* and Fossombronia wondraczeki* were found, also Colura calyptrifolia, Cololejeunea minutissima on gorse stems, Bryum argenteum var. lanatum on a wall near the hotel, and Dicranella schreberiana, Pohlia delicatula,* Mnium cuspidatum* and Drepanocladus aduncus.*

In the afternoon the lower part of Lough Caragh was visited; this large lake, some 2 miles long, is east of Glenbeigh and 2 miles from the sea. The area visited was a steep wooded slope leading down to the lake edge. The most interesting discovery here was Daltonia splachnoides, others included: Fossombronia wondraczeki, Lophocolea fragrans, Adelanthus decipiens, Radula aquilegia, Cololejeunea minutissima, Jubula hutchinsiae, Frullania microphylla, Fissidens curnowii, Grimmia retracta, Ulota americana, Drepanocladus uncinatus, Sematophyllum demissum and S. novae-caesareae. Tortula laevipila* and Physcomitrium pyriforme* were found on the way to Lough Caragh.

6 September. The weather changed for the better and was bright and sunny, which as it had been decided to go to Killarney, was just as well. Under the guidance of Prof. Richards the classical grounds of Torc Cascade (in the morning) and Derricunihy Wood were visited. At Torc Cascade a determined search was made for Cyclodictyon laetevirens without success, it was however found by Dr Jones on a visit immediately after the meeting. Eremonotus myriocarpus+ was found, and the following were seen: Torc - Dumortiera hirsuta, Eucalyx obovatus. Plagiochila asplenioides var. major,* P. tridenticulata, Leptoscyphus cuneifolius, Lophocolea fragrans, Harpanthus scutatus, Telaranea nematodes, Blepharostoma trichophylla, Colura calyptrifolia (on rocks), Cololejeunea microscopica, Lejeunea holtii, L. diversiloba, Marchesinia mackaii, c.per., Jubula hutchinsiae, Frullania microphylla, Fissidens viridulus,* F. pusillus, Zygodon conoideus,, and Hygrohypnum eugyrium. Derricunihy - Lophozia quinquedentata* (on top of boulders by lake), Sphenolobus minutus, c.per., S. exsectus,* Harpanthus scutatus, Cephalozia hibernica, Cephaloziella hampeana,* Lepidozia pearsoni, Telaranea nematodes, Radula aquilegia, R. voluta, Colura calyptrifolia, Lejeunea flava, Dicranodontium denudatum, Campylopus setifolius, Barbula hornschuchiana, Pohlia rothii,* Zygodon viridissimus var. vulgaris and Daltonia splachnoides.

7 September. The weather still proved kind, and the day was spent in the neighbourhood of Coomnagraussan and Coomeeneragh lakes, lying in a corrie to the east of Coomasaharn. The party split up, some remaining near Coomnagraussan, the lower lake, and the remainder going on to Coomeeneragh. Here a few members scaled the steep side of the corrie and then divided to return along both edges of the corrie. Bartramidula wilsoni,, was found again on burnt-over peat, a similar habitat to the Coomasaharn station. The best find here was Isopterygium muellerianum.+ Others included: Marsupella aquatica, Aplozia cordifolia, Lophozia incisa (2000 ft.), Nowellia curvifolia (rocks at 2000 ft.), Calypogeia fissa,* Mastigophora woodsii, Colura calyptrifolia, Cololejeunea minutissima, Sphagnum tenellum, Dichodontium pellucidum var. flavescens, Campylopus schwarzii, Trichostomum tenuirostre,, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum,, Tetraphis browniana,* Mnium longirostrum,* Campylostelium saxicola, Cratoneuron commutatum,* Hygrohypnum ochraceum, H. eugyrium, Acrocladium sarmentosum and Hylocomium umbratum.*

Pottia intermedia* was found near Glenbeigh. In the evening, as this was the last day at Glenbeigh and some members were leaving, all foregathered at 'The Hotel', Glenbeigh, where Prof. Richards in a short talk made some announcements.

8 September was taken up in the move from Glenbeigh to Waterville; some members who were not leaving until the afternoon, did a bit more exploration round Glenbeigh and found Tortula subulata* and Orthotrichum anomalum var. saxatile.* A small party reached Waterville at lunch time and proceeded to spy out the land, finding Fossombronia angulosa in abundance on a clay bank at the shore and Frullania microphylla on rocks.

9 September was devoted to two short trips returning to the hotels for lunch. Lough Currane, a large low-lying lake just behind Waterville was visited first and yielded: Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula,* Pellia neesiana, Lophozia ventricosa, Sphenolobus exsectus,* Cephalozia leucantha,* Telaranea nematodes, Radula complanata, Frullania microphylla (rocks), Anthoceros punctatus, Ditrichum cylindricum, Campylopus setifolius, C. brevipilus and Sematophyllum novae-caesareae.

In the afternoon a waterfall on the Finglas River, south of Waterville, was worked, where the first find was Campylopus shawii,* in abundance on the flat marshy ground beside Lough Dreenaun growing with Thuidium delicatulum, further finds at the waterfall were: Pellia neesiana (on lake flats), Fossombronia dumortieri (on lake flats), Lophozia attenuata, Cephalozia leucantha, Harpanthus scutatus, Sphenolobus minutus, c.per., Adelanthus decipiens, Lepidozia pearsoni, Colura calyptrifolia, c.per., Cololejeunea microscopica, Fissidens curnowii, Campylopus setifolius, C. introflexus, Grimmia decipiens var, robusta, Ephemerum serratum* and Pohlia bulbifera.*

10 September. The weather was dry but very misty to a fairly low level. The site for the day's exploration was the coast line between Lamb's Head and Hog's Head south of Waterville, through Darrynane and along the shore and sand dunes at Abbey Island. On the way Campylopus atrovirens var. falcatus+ and Glyphomitrium daviesii were found on a steep rocky face at 650 ft. on the Coomakista Pass. The day's finds were numerous, the best being Ephemerum stellatum.* Others included: Riccia beyrichiana,* Pellia neesiana, Telaranea nematodes, Radula lindbergiana,* Madotheca thuja, Marchesinia mackaii, Frullania microphylla, Ditrichum cylindricum, Dicranella varia (on walls), Campylopus introflexus, Tortula ruralis,* T. papillosa,* Aloina aloides (on walls), Pottia recta* (on walls), Phascum cuspidatum, Barbula hornschuchiana* (on walls), B. reflexa, Trichostomum sinuosum,* Grimmia subsquarrosa,* G. decipiens var. robusta, Zygodon conoideus, Hedwigia integrifolia and Entodon orthocarpus.

A decidedly basic wall top flora was observed at Darrynane in marked contrast to that seen at Glenbeigh.

11 September proved to be wet and rather stormy, the bulk of the party visited Hog's Head, a small headland south of Waterville, where the following were found: Blasia pusilla, Fissidens viridulus,* Dicranella crispa,* Dicranum bonjeani, Campylopus introflexus, Acaulon muticum, Physcomitrium pyriforme and Ephemerum stellatum.

A small party visited Derriana Lough in the corries north-east of Waterville and found Campylopus shawii, again in company with Thuidium delicatulum, on marshy ground near the lake, and also Colura calyptrifolia and Lejeunea flava.

12 September. It was decided to visit the site of two old copper mines on Goad Hill, south of Waterville; these proved to be small opencast workings on either side of the hill at about 800 ft. From there the party walked down to the shore near Caherdaniel and then back towards Waterville by West Cove. A determined search in the vicinity of the copper mines for peculiar Cephaloziellas was fruitless. The day's finds included: Riccia beyrichiana, R. warnstorfii. Sphenolobus ovatus, Cephaloziella starkei, C. hampeana, Scapania compacta, Diphyscium foliosum, Fissidens algarvicus, Dicranoweissia cirrata,* Campylopus shawii, Pottia recta, Grimmia decipiens var, robusta, Pohlia delicatula, Campylium chrysophyllum* and Brachythecium mildeanum,*

A small party visited Staigue Fort, a well-preserved stone fort of the Iron Age, and found Fossombronia caespitiformis* and Frullania fragilifolia.

13 September. A visit was made to the corries round Cloonaghlin Lough and Lough Coomeathcun in the mountains north-east of Waterville. The two lakes lie at the foot of steep precipitous slopes with a waterfall entering Lough Coomeathcun at the farthest end over the lip of the corrie. Most of the party proceeded to this point exploring the waterfall and the tumbled boulders at the edge of the lake. It was here that Dr Warburg found Trichomanes radicans, the famous Killarney Bristle Fern; the major find among the bryophytes was Cyclodictyon laetevirens. The rest included: Riccardia latifrons, Metzgeria hamata, Plagiochila asplenioides, c.per., P. spinulosa,, Harpanthus scutatus, Nowellia curvifolia (among Sphagna), Adelanthus decipiens, Lepidozia pearsoni, Telaranea nematodes, Radula carringtoni, R. holtii, Colura calyptrifolia, Lejeunea flava, L. diversiloba, Marchesinia mackaii, Jubula hutchinsiae, Campylopus shawii, C. introflexus, Gymnostomum aeruginosum, Grimmia patens, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum,, Campylostelium saxicola, Hedwigia integrifolia, Hygrohypnum eugyrium, Ctenidium molluscum var. fastigiatum,* Hylocomium umbratum, Sematophyllum demissum and S. novae-caesareae.

A few members stayed behind and visited Lough Currane, finding Lejeunea holtii, Cololejeunea microscopica and Frullania microphylla.

14 September was the last day of the meeting and started well but became showery later. Lough Currane was again visited, this time the eastern end, and gatherings included: Riccardia latifrons, Fossombronia caespitiformis, Sphenolobus exsectus, Lophocolea fragrans, Cephalozia leucantha, Blepharostoma trichophyllum, Telaranea nematodes, Cololejeunea microscopica, Lejeunea flava,, Marchesinia mackaii, Jubula hutchinsiae, Frullania germana, F. microphylla (on trees), F. fragilifolia, Campylopus shawii, Orthotrichum tenellum,* Ulota vittata, Daltonia splachnoides (abundant on willows and rocks in one place), Thuidium delicatulum and Cirriphyllum piliferum.

Generally speaking, for Ireland, and particularly the south-west, the weather was reasonably good. The most striking thing to a tyro from Northern Ireland was the comparative absence of Harpidioid Hypna which in similar habitats are abundant in the North; similarly, Dr Jones has commented on the rarity of Lophozias, L. quinquedentata, L. attenuata and particularly L. floerkii. There was, however, an abundance of Herberta hutchinsiae and Pleurozia purpurea, particularly at Cloonaghlin, growing in tufts up to 2 ft. across both pure and mixed.


Annual Meeting 1952, Dorchester, 17-22 April

This year the Annual Meeting was held in Dorchester and was attended by about forty members. Thanks to the efficient organization of Mr Wallace and his skilful choice of localities for exploration the meeting was both successful and bryologically profitable. Unfortunately, Mr Wallace was unable to be present all the time. On these occasions Mr Peterken deputized with his customary geniality, assisted by Mr Wanstall and Mr Norkett on the last two days.

The first excursion, on Thursday 17 April, was to the Isle of Portland. Warm sunny weather imparted a holiday air to this day by the sea, and the finding of many interesting bryophytes as well made it a perfect start to the week. The old quarries at West Cliff were explored first. Here many members collected the rare hepatic Southbya nigrella which grew on damp half-buried stones in company with another rarity, Cephaloziella baumgartneri. Camptothecium lutescens was found on a grassy bank near the road. Further examination of the quarries yielded Trichostomum crispulum, Weissia tortilis,* Encalypta vulgaris, Funaria muehlenbergii, Eurhynchium meridionale and Scorpiurium circinatum, which was common here as well as in many of the other places visited. Other bryophytes seen in the quarries included Aneura multifida, Fissidens cristatus and Tortella flavovirens. Members then proceeded to Portland Bill, visiting on the way a small marsh about a mile to the north of the Bill. Here Cratoneuron filicinum var. fallax* was collected from a trough filled from a calcareous spring. On bare ground and among short grass at Portland Bill, Pottia heimii and P. commutata* were found. Eurhynchium swartzii var. rigidum* occurred on a grassy calcareous bank above Freshwater Bay. Leptodon smithii was very fine on tree boles in the grounds of Pennsylvania Castle, where members had tea. After tea the vicinity of Rufus Castle was explored. Bryophytes seen here included: Marchesinia mackaii, Lejeunea cavifolia,* Eurhynchium meridionale and a form of Eurhynchium striatum with a narrow leaf apex. Mr Banwell found Cephaloziella baumgartneri c.per. at Church Ope Cove.

[Species marked with an asterisk* were new to V.C. 9]

On Friday an excursion was made to Bulbarrow Hill, near Ibberton. Bulbarrow reaches a height of 902 ft. The day was fine and members spent an interesting morning on the wooded north-facing slopes of Woolland Hill. Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum was frequent on damp flints, and there was a little Seligeria paucifolia on pieces of loose chalk. Other species noted were Metzgeria furcata var. fruticulosa,* Lejeunea cavifolia,* Cololejeunea minutissima, Fissidens incurvus, Zygodon viridissimus, Cryphaea heteromalla, Neckera pumila, Thuidium tamariscinum, Isopterygium depressum,* Hylocomium brevirostre After lunch members worked the short turf on the other side of the road but nothing of interest was found. In a small wood below Bulbarrow Hill Microlejeunea ulicina and Rhynchostegiella pallidirostre were the only things worth noting. Mr R. E. Parker collected Drepanocladus aduncus at Milborne St Andrew on the way back to Dorchester.

Saturday was another fine day. Hooke Park was the first place to be visited. Here a luxuriant crop of Physcomitrium pyriforme set everyone collecting. With it was a small quantity of Dicranella schreberiana.* Many people then followed a small stream which acted as a boundary between calcareous and non-calcareous ground. On one side there was Isopterygium depressum* and on the other I. elegans. Other plants collected in and near the stream were: Pellia fabbroniana, Aplozia riparia,* Lophozia turbinata, Lejeunea cavifolia,* Calypogeia arguta, Seligeria pusilla,* Dichodontium pellucidum, Barbula trifaria, Eucladium verticillatum, Trichostomum sinuosum, Orthotrichum striatum, Neckera pumila, Hygroamblystegium tenax, Eurhynchium schleicheri, Rhynchostegiella teesdalei. After lunch a short visit was paid to Wytherstone Marsh. Species seen here were: Sphagnum palustre, Microlejeunea ulicina, Hookeria lucens, and a form of Plagiothecium denticulatum with undulate leaves. The following were found by a stream near Wytherstone Farm: Fissidens pusillus, Eucladium verticillatum, Rhynchostegiella pallidirostre, Barbula trifaria, Hygroamblystegium tenax and Amblystegium juratzkanum.*

On Sunday members followed their own devices. Several re-visited Portland, spending most of a warm sunny day in the neighbourhood of Church Ope Cove. Madotheca thuja, Tortula marginata, Barbula convoluta var. commutata* and Trichostomum crispulum were the best finds.

On Monday the weather broke and, as many members left during the weekend, a much-depleted party emerged from the bus to explore the possibilities of Slepe Heath, near Wareham. An interesting feature of this low-lying moorland was the Dorset Heath, Erica ciliaris, which was abundant on the drier parts. The party splashed about in the wind and rain until a withdrawal to the bus for an early lunch could be made without loss of face. Plants collected on Slepe Heath included: Aneura sinuata var. major, Leptoscyphus anomalus, Cephalozia connivens, C. macrostycha (probably), Odontoschisma sphagni, Lepidozia setacea, Aulacomnium palustre The weather improved a little after lunch and it was possible to explore the grassy calcareous slopes near Corfe Castle in relative comfort. The more interesting things seen here were: Reboulia hemisphaerica, Tortula subulata, Funaria muehlenbergii, Rhodobryum roseum, Scapania aspera,* Tortula laevipila var. laevipiliformis occurred on elders on West Hill, and Cololejeunea minutissima, Microlejeunea ulicina and Plagiochila asplenioides were noted in a small wood. After tea a quick dash was made to a small marsh on Corfe Common. The best things here were: Sphagnum squarrosum, Aneura multifida, Chiloscyphus pallescens, Mnium seligeri, Drepanocladus exannulatus, D. revolvens and Acrocladium giganteum. Dr Warburg spent the afternoon at Maiden Castle, where he found Weissia crispa, Thuidium philiberti* and a peculiar Weissia which has not yet been identified.

The last day, Tuesday, was again spent by the sea, but the rather sinister, soft liassic cliffs around Eype Mouth near Bridport were very unlike the hard matter-of fact oolite of Portland. A striking feature from a bryological standpoint was the large quantity of Anthoceros present. There were two species, A. laevis* and A. husnoti,* both new to V.C. 9. Associated with the Anthoceros was Pohlia delicatula with abundant fruit. Other bryophytes seen at Eype were: Aneura sinuata var. major, Gymnocolea inflata, Tortula marginata, Aloina aloides, A. ambigua, Desmatodon convolutus, Pottia starkeana, Gyroweissia tenuis, Weissia crispata, Epipterygium tozeri, Orthotrichum lyelli, Ulota phyllantha, Leucodon sciuroides var. morensis.* Orthotrichum pulchellum was found by some members on the way back.

The headquarters for the meeting was the Antelope Hotel, Dorchester. The annual general meeting was held in the Oak Room, an impressive if rather gloomy chamber notable for its connexion with Judge Jeffreys, who held his assizes there. It was proposed that the main excursion for 1953 should be held in Scotland with headquarters at Callander, with the possibility of a further week in some other locality. An Easter weekend at Norwich was also suggested.

Members who stayed until the end were saddened by the illness of Miss Knox. Miss Knox, who had been a member since 1931, died shortly after her return home.


Autumn Meeting 1952, Leeds

At the end of September a week-end meeting was held at the University, Leeds organized locally by Miss L. I. Scott. On the Friday evening (26 September) exhibition of bryological work in progress by various members was held in one the laboratories, and to these features many living examples of thalloid hepati were added from the Botany Department’s conservatory. The Secretary brougt the album of photographs of members past and present that were collected by Mr Thompson when he was Secretary. Further additions to this record of our members would be welcomed. Four papers were read and discussed during the two sessions on the Saturday: Dr C. H. Gimingham and Miss E. M. Burnett on ‘Investigation of correlations between growth form and habitat in mosses’, Prof. A. R. Gemmell on ‘Regeneration in Atrichum undulatum’, Dr P. Greig-Smith on ‘Taxonomy of British species of Lejeunea’, and Prof. I. Manton (in whose Department we were comfortably housed) on ‘The Spermatozoid of Sphagnum and other Bryophytes’, illustrated by slides from photographs taken by an electron microscope, which some of us were privileged to see afterwards. The Sunday excursion to the Strid above Bolton Abbey was much enjoyed for the fine autumn tints as well as the interesting calcicolous flora on the rocks and banks of the Wharfe. Nearly thirty members at friends, some from the British Ecological Society, which was invited, attended the meeting.


Annual Meeting 1953, Norwich, 9-11 April

The Annual Meeting this year was held in Norwich, and was attended by about twenty-five members. This was the first occasion on which a B.B.S. meeting had been held in East Anglia, and if the district was less exciting bryologically than districts in the north and west, much of interest was seen.

The first day's excursion, on 9 April, was to the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists Society's nature reserve at Wheatfen Broad, near Surlingham. This consists largely of wet fen-carr dominated by Salix cinerea, with more open areas of Phragmites and Cladium fen. The carr had an interesting wet woodland bryophyte flora, including Mnium punctatum, Leskea polycarpa, Amblystegium kochii* and Eurhynchium speciosum; higher up on the branches of the Salix bushes grew Orthotrichum pulchellum, Frullania dilatata, Radula complanata, and Metzgeria furcata var. fruticulosa.* The areas of open fen had a disappointing flora, but Acrocladium giganteum, Drepanocladus aduncus and Campylium polygamum were noted. After a walk through the damp oakwood on the 'landward' side of the fen, the afternoon was spent in an area of very wet carr, with a great abundance of Mnium affine carpeting the ground. In this carr the party saw a monoicous bush of the usually dioicous Myrica gale.

[ * New vice-county record]

On Friday 10 April the party visited Swangey Fen, near Attleborough. The fen had unfortunately been recently burnt: nevertheless, many members saw Camptothecium nitens growing amongst the bases of the Cladium shoots with Drepanocladus revolvens var. intermedius. Various members explored the nearby damp fields and strips of woodland, the species seen including Physcomitrium pyriforme, Aneura multifida and Ulota crispa. The beautiful male catkins of Salix purpurea, which was flowering abundantly on the fen, were a memorable sight. A small area of marshy ground a mile or two to the south, which was visited during the afternoon, proved rather unprofitable, but two members returning to Norwich via Overa Heath found Acrocladium giganteum, Drepanocladus fluitans and Aneura major.

The last excursion, to Buxton Heath, was probably the most interesting for the majority of members. Here a shallow valley crossing a stretch of Calluna heath evidently receives calcareous water from the underlying chalk, and in it is developed a rich fen vegetation. The fen had a rich and varied bryophyte flora; the most notable species was Lophozia schultzii var. laxa, which was scattered over a wide area, though often in small quantity. Other species included Chiloscyphus polyanthus, Scapania aspera, Aneura multifida, Sphagnum squarrosum, Mnium pseudopunctatum, Aulacomnium palustre, Philonotis calcarea, Cratoneuron commutatum, Drepanocladus exannulatus, D. revolvens, D. vernicosus, Acrocladium stramineum and Ctenidium molluscum. In the wettest parts a lax form of Moerckia flotowiana grew together with Aneura pinguis. The vegetation of the valley sides was in striking contrast, with an abundance of a number of the commoner Sphagna. Patches of Leptoscyphus anomalus were conspicuous and the small liverworts growing amongst the Sphagnum included Cephalozia macrostachya, C. connivens, Lepidozia setacea and Cephaloziella elachista.* Gymnocolea inflata, Sphagnum compactum, Campylopus brevipilus and Drepanocladus fluitans were seen in the fringing wet heath. Other hepatics noted at Buxton Heath included Odontoschisma denudatum, and Scapania nemorosa.

A successful and enjoyable meeting owed much to the able and efficient organization of Mr Peterken and Mr Wallace. A word of thanks must also go to Mr E. A. Ellis, who kindly arranged to take us round Wheatfen Broad at very short notice.



Summer Meeting 1953, Callander/Glencoe, 25 July-8 August

The Summer meeting of the Society was held from 25 July to 8 August, the first week being spent at Callander, Perthshire, the second at Glencoe, Argyll. Owing partly to difficulties in obtaining accommodation only fifteen members participated. Fortunately five of them had cars, and very kindly provided transport.

The first day, Sunday, was wet. A morning visit to the Falls of Leny (V.C. 87) was not very productive. Eucalyx paroicus* was seen there, and Fissidens pusillus* and Ditrichum cylindricum* were gathered from the river bank just above the falls. Gleann Casaig, near Brig o'Turk, which was visited in the afternoon, proved equally barren and a great deal wetter. Lophozia alpestris was seen on a wall. New to V.C. 87 were Sphagnum plumulosum,* S. rubellum* and Dicranella heteromalla var. sericea.*

[* New vice-county record.]

Monday was spent at the Menstrie Glen, in the Ochil Hills. This too is in V.C. 87 (West Perth), though the Menstrie Burn forms the present-day boundary between Stirlingshire and Clackmannanshire. There are well-authenticated old records from here of Targionia hypophylla and of several uncommon calcicoles; but the best areas must have been missed, for there was no sign of Targionia, and the only calcicoles seen were very ordinary. The more noteworthy finds were Lophozia hatcheri,* Leucodon sciuroides and Zygodon viridissimus var. vulgaris* on an ash trunk, Fissidens pusillus, Bartramia pomiformis var. crispa, and a great abundance of Cynodontium bruntonii.

One excursion was to Inversnaid, Stirlingshire (V.C. 86), on the eastern shore of Loch Lomond. The weather was only showery, which is better than usual for Inversnaid. Isothecium holtii was abundant on rocks in the bed of the Snaid Burn, Microlejeunea ulicina* and Harpalejeunea ovata were seen on oak trunks, and the latter was very abundant on some of the boulders. Other plants seen here were Sphagnum strictum,* S. subsecundum var. inundatum,* Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia, Harpanthus scutatus, * and a little Sematophyllum novae-caesareae,* the best find of the day and a considerable eastward extension of its known range. A few members walked down the shore of the loch to Cailness. On the way there Grimmia retracta and Fissidens curnowii* were seen on boulders, Cephaloziella rubella on an old wall, and Jamesoniella autumnalis in the wood near Cailness. The Cailness ravine, which was very hurriedly searched, seemed at least as rich as that at Inversnaid, many of the same species being present. Sematophyllum was locally abundant on rocks. Among plants seen here but not at Inversnaid were Cephalozia leucantha,* Lepidozia pearsoni and Tetraphis browniana .

The other 3 days of the first week were spent exploring the Killin district of Perthshire (V.C. 88). This is the bryologically richest part of Scotland, and also the best worked. Visits to Ben Lawers and to Creag an Lochain were enjoyable and instructive, and produced a high proportion of the rarities for which these places are noted, but no great object would be served by listing them. Bryum arcticum, found by Miss Duncan, seems to be new to Creag an Lochain. Oh the remaining day the party drove up Glen Lochay and went up the Allt Innischoarach on to the hills to the south. Ulota ludwigii and U. drummondii were seen on alders by the Lochay. On the hill were Aulacomnium turgidum, Timmia norvegica, Dichodontium pellucidum var. fagimontanum, Oncophorus wahlenbergii, Fissidens viridulus* in a rock crevice, and many of the plants already seen on Creag an Lochain and Ben Lawers. A very large form of Lophozia mülleri, probably the var. libertae, was seen here and on Creag an Lochain.

Glencoe (V.C. 98) was a complete contrast from Callander, both scenically and floristically; and the weather was remarkably good for the west Highlands. Riccia sorocarpa,* Ditrichum cylindricum,* Dicranella varia,* Amblystegium serpens,* Brachythecium albicans* and Bryum bicolor* were gathered in the Hotel garden and at the roadsides, Campylium polygamum* in the salt-marsh opposite. The alderwood above the hotel, visited on two occasions, yielded Fissidens pusillus,* Eucalyx paroicus,* Gymnostomum calcareum, Seligeria doniana, Lophozia longidens, and fruiting plants of Orthothecium rufescens, Isopterygium elegans and Ulota phyllantha.

The east face of Creag Bhàn introduced members unfamiliar with them to a few of the large hepatics so common in and characteristic of the western Highlands: Pleurozia purpurea, Metzgeria hamata, Herberta hutchinsiae, Mastigophora woodsii and Scapania ornithopodioides. Other plants seen included Herberta adunca, Radula lindbergiana, Tetraphis browniana, Dicranella subulata, Barbula ferruginascens, Leptodontium recurvifolium, Mnium orthorrhynchum,* and abundant Isopterygium müllerianum; also Thuidium recognitum,* which is new to the west of Scotland. At the southern end of the hill, where the limestone is replaced by granite, Oedipodium griffithianum occurred in several places.

The nearby hill of Sgòrr a'Choise had on the whole a less basic flora, apart from a large gully at its north end. Plants seen here but not at Creag Bhàn included Scapania aequiloba and Dicranella rufescens;* also Bartramidula wilsoni,* a very good find, not in its usual habitat of burnt ground, but on bare soil. Low down on the north-west side of the hill Ulota ludwigii was found growing on willows, and Colura calyptrifolia was seen here and there on birch roots and heather stems. But the best find, spotted by Mrs Appleyard, was Daltonia splachnoides.* This was found widely scattered on birch sticks and roots, on stones, and on living heather stems, everywhere in small quantity, always near ground-level and always close to or in the many small streamlets that were running down the open hillside after a period of rain. This is the third Scottish record of this moss, and a considerable southward extension of its range in Scotland. It is also a very different habitat from those in which it has been found before.

One day was spent in Coire Gabhail, on the north-east side of Bidean nam Bian. Much of the time was spent in the lower part of the corrie, where the boulders had abundant Dicranum blyttii, fruiting Antitrichia curtipendula, Dicranodontium uncinatum, Oligotrichum hercynicum var. laxum* and Sphenolobus pearsoni. Some members visited the higher ground, under the summit of Bidean, or on the ridge to the north-east of it. Pohlia ludwigii and Marsupella sullivantiae were seen in springs at 3000 ft. A little higher were Arctoa fulvella, Dicranum starkei and D. falcatum. Moerckia blyttii was abundant on earth in one place at 3300 ft., associated with Anastrophyllum donianum. Diplophyllum taxifolium* was seen at 3500 ft.

The main assault on Bidean nam Bian (3766 ft. and the highest mountain in Argyll) was made from the north-west corrie. Here there is a sheltered bouldery hollow at a little above 3000 ft. with a very rich bryophyte vegetation; and the party had lunch here in the midst of Marchantia polymorpha* var. alpestris, Diplophyllum taxifolium, Leptodontium recurvifolium, Pohlia drummondii, P. albicans var. glacialis, Bryum weigelii, Pseudoleskea patens, and Hylocomium pyrenaicum. Abundant at higher levels were the hepatics Jamesoniella carringtoni, Bazzania pearsoni, Anastrophyllum donianum (some with perianths) and Scapania nimbosa, all of which are common in the west Highlands, but very rare elsewhere. Also seen were Brachythecium glaciale, Mnium orthorrhynchum, Marsupella stableri and Isopterygium müllerianum. Mist unfortunately made it unsafe to leave the corrie and go on toward the summit. Dr Jones penetrated farthest into the clouds and returned with some fine fruiting Pohlia ludwigii, and also Marsupella nevicensis,* previously known in Britain only from Ben Nevis.

On a day when low cloud made it advisable to keep to the low ground the party crossed Loch Leven by Ballachulish Ferry and explored a small ravine at Onich, Inverness-shire (V.C. 97). On soil in the rough pasture of the floor of the ravine were Ephemerum serratum* and Riccia warnstorfii,* the latter the second Scottish record and a northward extension of its British range. Both were immature when gathered, but ripened capsules after cultivation. Barbula ferruginascens,* Seligeria recurvata, Fissidens pusillus, and Aplozia pumila were seen on metamorphic limestone rocks. On tree trunks were Ulota ludwigii and fruiting U. phyllantha. On the rocks and on birch trunks were many of the small hepatics characteristic of sheltered situations in the west, Mylia cuneifolia, Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia, Harpalejeunea ovata, Aphanolejeunea microscopica and Plagiochila tridenticulata. Most of these were also seen, though less abundantly, in Glencoe. Other finds were Mnium rugicum,* in a marsh by the stream, and Lophozia obtusa. The party continued into Glen Righ, where Lepidozia pearsoni was seen, also Colura calyptrifolia on heather stems, and Mylia taylori in fruit on a rock. Male plants of Dicranum scottianum were seen on a birch trunk, fruiting ones on rocks.

Fine weather and the richness of the areas visited both contributed to the success of the meeting, all members finding species new to them. That much work remains to be done on the bryophyte flora of Scotland is shown not only by the number and interest of the new records made, but also by the number of gatherings that it has not proved possible to name satisfactorily, e.g. in Lophozia, Marsupella, Plagiothecium and Brachythecium. A few of these are discussed in the distributor's report; but there are many more among the 'arrears' of those who gathered them.



Annual Meeting 1954, Monmouth, 15-19 April

The Annual Meeting was held in Monmouth from 15 to 19 April and was attended by thirty-three members.

On Wednesday evening, 14 April, the members assembled at the headquarters, the Beaufort Arms Hotel, where a room was placed at the disposal of the Society for its meetings.

For the first day's excursion on 15 April, the members set out on foot for Lady Park Wood (V.C. 35) and The Slaughter (V.C. 34) in the Wye Valley. On the way the roadside banks were examined and Mnium stellare, Eurhynchium schleicheri and Lophozia turbinata were seen in some quantity. The wooded limestone cliffs of Lady Park Wood above the River Wye were the main destination and here were found Gymnostomum calcareum, Eucladium verticillatum, Bryum argenteum var. lanatum (new to V.C. 35), Pterogonium gracile, Amblystegiella sprucei (new to V.C. 35), Orthothecium intricatum, Cololejeunea rossettiana and Marchesinia mackaii. On rocks by the River Wye Cinclidotus fontinaloides and Hygroamblystegium fluviatile were noted, the former being in fruit and abundant. The trees by the river yielded Tortula latifolia and Orthotrichum sprucei. After a picnic lunch the afternoon was spent in exploring that part of the same area of woodland, situated in West Gloucestershire and known as The Slaughter. On the rocky slopes of the wood a successful search was made to refind Anomodon longifolius. Unfortunately, it was not in very good condition and appeared to be in smaller quantity than formerly. Other interesting bryophytes seen here were Seligeria calcarea, Campylium sommerfeltii, Isothecium striatulum, Scleropodium caespitosum, Aplozia atrovirens var. sphaerocarpoidea, Calypogeia arguta, Cololejeunea calcarea, C. rossettiana and Marchesinia mackaii. After a walk through the woods a halt was made for tea at the White Horse Inn, Staunton. Afterwards a number of members felt sufficiently refreshed to walk back to Monmouth via the Duke of York lane (V.C. 35) under the guidance of Dr E. W. Jones. On the rocky banks of the lane Scleropodium illecebrum and Cephaloziella turneri, both previously recorded, were pointed out. A nearby fallow field yielded Ditrichum cylindricum.

16 April. A visit was made by motor-coach to Taren yr Esgob near Capel-y-ffin, in the upper part of the Vale of Ewyas, better known as the Llanthony Valley. The Old Red Sandstone cliffs, or tarens as they are locally called, were frequently visited by the late Rev. Augustine Ley and he recorded a large number of mosses from them; however, since most of his records appear to have been made in the Monmouthshire parts of the valley, our attention was confined to the Breconshire part of Taren yr Esgob. A large number of bryophytes were seen, of which Fissidens curnowii, Dichodontium pellucidum var. fagimontanum, Barbula reflexa and Weisia rutilans are new county records for V.C. 42. The other bryophytes met with included Brachydontium trichodes, Blindia acuta, Seligeria recurvata, Dicranum bonjeani, Gymnostomum aeruginosum, Eucladium verticillatum, Leptodontium flexifolium, Grimmia trichophylla, Pohlia elongata, P. cruda, Plagiobryum zierii, Anomobryum filiforme, Plagiopus oederi, Bartramia halleriana, B. pomiformis, B. ithyphylla, Philonotis calcarea, Hedwigia ciliata, Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum, Campylium protensum, Orthothecium intricatum, Isopterygium pulchellum, Reboulia hemisphaerica, Preissia quadrata, Marsupella funckii, M. emarginata, Lophozia turbinata, L. muelleri, L. bantriensis, L. alpestris, L. quinquedentata, L. floerkii, Cephaloziella starkii, Blepharostoma trichophyllum, Scapania aspera, Madotheca laevigata, Cololejeunea calcarea and Lejeunea cavifolia.

17 April. The Symonds Yat area in the Wye Valley was the venue for the third day's excursion. Most of the morning was spent exploring Coldwell Rocks (V.C. 34) which, like those of Lady Park Wood, are precipitous Carboniferous Limestone cliffs bordering the River Wye. After some search Bryum canariense var. provinciale was seen in rather small quantity. Tortula marginata and Cirriphyllum crassinervium were also seen on the 'Rocks', but there appeared to be little else of particular interest. Heterocladium hereropterum var. flaccidum and Rhynchostegiella pallidirostra were met with in the neighbourhood of Symonds Yat Rock. The rocks in and along the edge of the River Wye were carefully searched and the following were noted: Fissidens crassipes, Cinclidotus fontinaloides, Barbula nicholsonii, Grimmia alpicola var. rivularis and Hygroamblystegium fluviatile. In the afternoon Huntsham Hill, Herefordshire (V.C. 36) was visited. This is a boulder-strewn hill of Old Red Sandstone situated in a bend of the River Wye. On rocks by the river Fissidens crassipes and F. rufulus were found, whilst trees on the river bank yielded Tortula papillosa and Orthotrichum sprucei, and the bank itself, Fissidens incurvus and F. pusillus. At the base of the hill and at the bottom of a damp shady rock, near a cottage, a fine colony of Leptobryum pyriforme was met with. Amongst the bryophytes with which the boulders are well clothed the following of special interest were seen, Dicranum scottianum, D. fuscescens, Grimmia trichophylla, G. retracta (new to V.C. 36), Pterogonium gracile, Isopterygium depressum, Calypogeia arguta, Lophozia porphyroleuca (new to V.C. 36), and Scapania gracilis.

18 April. The day started showery and it seemed that the excellent weather we had experienced on the first three days had come to an end, but on arrival at Trelleck the skies cleared and a fine, sunny day followed. The members left the motor-coach at the Virtuous Well, an old medicinal spring, at Trelleck, and after exploring the marshy field surrounding it, moved on to Broad Meend, better known to botanists as Trelleck Bog. Although popularly called a bog and large patches of Sphagnetum are present, Molinia coerulea is dominant over most of the area. On the way the old walls were searched and Lophozia excisa was seen in fine condition. The locality had been so thoroughly searched for bryophytes by Miss E. A. Armitage that it was not expected that many new records would be made for the locality; nevertheless, the following additions were seen : Sphagnum recurvum, Dicranum bonjeani, Lophozia porphyroleuca, Calypogeia trichomanis and Cephaloziella hampeana. The three latter being new to V.C. 35. The old walls between Broad Meend and Cleddon were carefully searched for Grimmia montana which had been recorded from them, but no trace of it could be found. It is probable that some form of G. trichophylla, which is particularly abundant there, was mistaken for it. After a picnic lunch Llandogo Glen was visited, and the following were seen: Fissidens pusillus, F. rufulus, F. rivularis, Ditrichum homomallum, Brachydontium trichodes (new to V.C. 35), Dichodontium pellucidum var. flavescens, Trichostomum tenuirostre, Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum, Plagiothecium silvaticum var. succulentum (new to V.C. 35), Aneura sinuata, Metzgeria conjugata, Lophocolea fragrans (new to V.C. 35), Calypogeia fissa,, Trichocolea tomentella, Jubula hutchinsiae. In the evening a few members visited Whitebrook Valley, about two miles north of Llandogo, and recorded Fissidens rivularis, Dicranella schreberiana, Funaria fascicularis, Physcomitrium pyriforme, Rhynchostegiella teesdalei, Riccia warnstorfii (new to V.C. 35), R. sorocarpa, Fossombronia pusilla and Lophocolea fragrans.

19 April. The last excursion was to Llanbedr, near Crickhowell, Breconshire. In the lane leading from the village to the river, the Grwyne Fechan, Eurhynchium schleicheri was noted. Fissidens rivularis was seen in some abundance on rocks in the bed of the river and was very luxuriant on wet dripping rocks around a small spring. Fissidens crassipes and F. rufulus were also recorded. Other bryophytes seen included Dichodontium pellucidum var. flavescens, Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum, Hygroamblystegium fluviatile, H. tenax, Hygrohypnum luridum, Cirriphyllum piliferum, and Rhynchostegiella teesdalei. A few members visited Cwm Milaid about 1½ miles north of Llanbedr, but apart from Tortula laevipila and Leucodon sciuroides growing on the bole of an ash, Funaria fascicularis and Rynchostegiella teesdalei, little of special interest was seen there. A small party also went to Cwm Banw about 4 miles north of Llanbedr and saw Fissidens exiguus. Gliffaes, on the River Usk, and about 3½ miles west of Crickhowell, was also visited by some members and here Fissidens rufulus, Orthotrichum cupulatum and its var. nudum, and Scleropodium caespitosum were seen. A search for Bryum gemmiparum, first recorded by the Rev. A. Ley in 1890 from the Breconshire side of the Grwyne Fawr, was rewarded by its being found on the Monmouthshire bank of the river.

Grateful thanks are due to those members who kindly sent lists of the bryophytes they had noted on the excursion.



Autumn Meeting 1954, London

At the end of September, a week-end meeting was held in London. The authorities at the British Museum (Natural History) kindly allowed us the use of the board room on Saturday afternoon, where, after the official business was completed, Dr F. Rose read a paper on the Comparative Ecology of British and German Sphagnum bogs, followed by Mr A. H. Norkett on the sections of the genus Fissidens in Britain. On Sunday, 26 September, a party of about twenty-five visited Ockley Common near Thursley in Surrey, where extensive bogs rich in Sphagna were traversed. Many of the Hepatics usually associated with this type of at grew in abundance on the sphagnous hummocks. A few patches of Calypogeia sphagnicola were found and a new record for the district amongst the mosses Dicranum rugosum on somewhat drier ground.


Annual Meeting 1955, Arnside, 12-19 April

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held this year in Westmorland from 12 to 19 April, the Headquarters being at Arnside, a small but attractive resort on the coast. The meeting was well attended, some 30 to 40 members being present, although some of the members were unable to attend for the full week. On two of the excursions we had the pleasure of having with us Dr Philips from Pomona College, Claremont, California (U.S.A.).

On Tuesday, 12 April, an informal meeting was held for members at the headquarters in the Inglemere Hotel during the evening.

Following a long winter and a previous poor summer, we were favoured by having calm, fine, and moderately warm weather, which continued throughout the whole week. This was greatly appreciated by all, and added considerably to the pleasure of the excursions.

The areas of countryside visited were chiefly on Carboniferous limestone, which included a considerable amount of limestone pavement; this gave to our gatherings a predominance of the calcicole bryophytes. The Glencoyne Woods by Lake Ullswater and the Beech Hill Woods in Longsleddale were, however, exceptions, and in these latter localities more acid conditions prevailed.

For the first day's excursion on Wednesday, 13 April, members walked over Arnside Knott, a nearby hill of about 500 ft. with scattered woodland. The species of bryophytes that were much in evidence in this area were Encalypta streptocarpa, Tortella tortuosa and Breutelia chrysocoma; others of more interest that were seen were Metzgeria pubescens, a little Nowellia curvifolia and Scapania aspera; the mosses included Fissidens cristatus, Tortella nitida, Orthodontium lineare round the base of old larch trees and, as usual, fruiting most profusely; good patches of Rhytidium rugosum were also found. After a picnic lunch the party walked on by Arnside Tower to explore Middlebarrow Woods on a less elevated hill of some 300 ft. The southern portion of this wood is on limestone pavement. From this district one of the most interesting bryophytes seen was Riccia beyrichiana ; Neckera crispa was found fruiting, and Rhytidium rugosum, was again seen. Other bryophytes noted were Scapania aspera, Lejeunea cavifolia, Dicranum bonjeani, Barbula reflexa, Tortella nitida, Funaria muehlenbergii, Anomodon viticulosus, Brachythecium glareosum and Isopterygium depressum.

14 April. For the second day's outing members went by motor-coach to the village of Witherslack, and then a short walk for a brief visit to Foulshaw Moss, an extensive area of deep peat which is in the process of being drained; it is low lying and sparsely wooded. Sphagna were the dominant bryophytes in this area; the most frequent species were S. palustre, S. papillosum, S. recurvum and S. plumulosum. Occurring less frequently were S. tenellum, S. quinquefarium, S. fimbriatum; in the wetter portions of the bog were forms of S. cuspidatum. The hepatics seen included Lophozia ventricosa, L. silvicola, L. incisa, Cephalozia media, C. connivens and Calypogeia fissa; mosses observed were Tetraphis pellucida Polytrichum alpestre, Dicranum bonjeani and Orthodontium lineare at the base of small birch trees.

The party went on by coach to Whitbarrow, and walked up to the woods and scar which were searched after having a picnic lunch. It is an extensive area, and there was only time to work a small portion of it during the afternoon. A number of bryophytes were seen, among the more interesting noted were Seligeria doniana on a small limestone boulder, Amblystegiella sprucei in a crevice of limestone rock, and Aplozia atrovirens var. sphaerocarpoidea (new to V.C. 69). Other species noted were Metzgeria conjugata, Aplozia riparia, Lophozia turbinata, L. quinquedentata, Cephalozia connivens, Scapania aspera, Lejeunea cavifolia, Madotheca cordeana, Polytrichum nanum, Fissidens incurvus, Seligeria recurvata, Barbula reflexa, Weissia rutilans, Funaria obtusa, Tortella nitida, Trichostomum brachydontium var. cophocarpum, Rhacomitrium fasciculare, Mnium marginatum, M. cuspidatum, M. longirostrum, Orthothecium intricatum, Campylium chrysophyllum, Thuidium tamariscinum Thuidium delicatulum, Rhytidium rugosum. The party returned to Witherslack for tea at the Derby Arms and here Marchesinia mackaii was found.

On Friday, 15 April, the motor-coach took members as far as Docker Nook in Longsleddale, a wooded valley rising steeply to well over 1000 ft., from which the party walked up to explore the Beech Hill Woods, an extensive area where the full day was spent and a number of good bryophytes were found. Lepidozia pearsoni and Lejeunea lamacerina var. azorica were both new to V.C. 69. Campylostelium saxicola was found in the higher reaches by Mr Wallace, Fissidens crassipes and Plagiobryum zierii were found in a small gorge, and an old wall produced Antitrichia curtipendula. Other finds during the day included for hepatics, Reboulia hemisphaerica, Metzgeria conjugata, Lophozia atlantica, L. floerkii, L. quinquedentata, L. bantriensis, L. incisa, Anastrepta orcadensis, Plagiochila spinulosa, Bazzania tricrenata, Trichocolea tomentella, Cololejeunea calcarea and Marchesinia mackaii. Some mosses of interest were Rhabdoweissia denticulata, R. crenulata and Encalypta rhabdocarpa; Neckera crispa was again found in fruit. Further mosses noted were Andreaea rothii, Seligeria recurvata, Campylopus atrovirens, Fissidens osmundoides, Anoectangium compactum, Trichostomum tenuirostre, Anomobryum filiforme, Bryum alpinum, Mnium marginatum, Plagiopus oederi, Bartramia halleriana, Orthotrichum rivulare, Fontinalis squamosa, Plagiothecium pulchellum, Ptilium crista-castrensis and Hylocomium brevirostre.

16 April. A visit was made to Hutton Roof Crag and Farlton Knott. The party left the motor-coach at Clawthorpe Lane End near Holme, and walked up the Hutton Roof Road on to the limestone rocks of Hutton Roof. On these bare-looking hills at 800-900 ft. most of the bryophytes were found either on the more shaded north aspect of the rocks or else in the deep crevices of the limestone pavement. In one of these crevices Pedinophyllum interuptum was found, an additional locality for this rare hepatic. Other species of interest seen were Metzgeria pubescens, Fissidens minutulus, Funaria muehlenbergii, Amblystegiella sprucei and Campylium sommerfeltii; and those of somewhat less interest included Reboulia hemisphaerica, Metzgeria conjugata, Blepharostoma trichophyllum, Physcomitrium pyriforme, Barbula reflexa, Trichostomum brachydontium var. cophocarpum, Orthothecium intricatum, Brachythecium populeum, Rynchostegiella pallidirostra, R. tenella and Rhytidium rugosum.

After enjoying a picnic lunch in warm sunshine on the top of Hutton Roof the party walked across to Farlton Knott, a somewhat similar hill but not quite so high, and sloping more steeply on the northern side. As expected, a number of the bryophytes seen here were the same as those we had seen on Hutton Roof, but there were a few notable additions, including Isothecium striatulum. Other bryophytes seen in this area were Cololejeunea rossettiana, Marchesinia mackaii, Grimmia orbicularis and Zygodon stirtoni.

During the afternoon a small party, led by Dr Warburg, made a brief visit to Wash Dub Wood by the River Keer on the borders of Lancs. V.C. 60 and found several new records for this county; these were Aplozia pumila, Scapania umbrosa, Orthodontium lineare and Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum. Other species noted here were Cephalozia lammersiana, Tetraphis browniana, Fissidens pusillus and Mnium stellare.

17 April. Sunday was a free day for members to do as they wished. A few of the more active members climbed Helvellyn and had the satisfaction of finding Trichostomum tenuirostre var. holtii, Oedipodium griffithianum and Hygrohypnum dilatatum.

The most interesting discovery of the week was made by Mr Peterken during a visit to Silverdale where he found Bryum provinciale (new to V.C. 60) on sandy cliffs on the shore, a notable extension of the range of this rare species, previously unknown north of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire.

During the afternoon a number of members gladly accepted the kind invitation of Dr Evans to visit the Nature Conservancy's Research Station at Merlewood, Grange-over-Sands. Dr Evans conducted members through the laboratories - only completed in January 1954 - where various branches of 'long-term' research work were in progress. These researches have every prospect of being of fundamental value to agriculture, forestry and land management in the future. Thanks to the kindness of Dr Evans, members spent a most interesting and instructive afternoon.

On Monday, 18 April, the continuing fine weather made a visit by motor-coach to Lake Ullswater most enjoyable. Members left the coach at Stybarrow Crag, and scattered up into the Glencoyne Woods which rise steeply above the crags, some members going up to Black Crag 1750 ft. or higher.

In this area the more humid conditions gave rise to a rich and varied bryophyte flora. The ground between the outcrops of rock was marshy and carpeted with Sphagna; the species seen were S. palustre, S. recurvum, S. subsecundum var. inundatum and var. auriculatum; also the well-marked species S. girgensohnii, S. quinquefarium and S. russowii were noted. The fallen decaying trees yielded Nowellia curvifolia growing profusely and in some quantity, Aneura palmata and Scapania umbrosa. Ptilidium ciliare was also seen growing in this rather unusual habitat. The rare moss Ptilium cristra-castrensis was found in plenty, but small and poorly grown compared with luxuriant specimens from some Scottish localities. Hypnum hamulosum was found by Mr Parker. Among the other numerous bryophytes seen were Metzgeria conjugata, Eucalyx obovatus, Lophozia bantriensis, Anastrepta orcadensis, Plagiochila spinulosa, Leptoscyphus taylori, Saccogyna viticulosa, Cephalozia media, C. catenulata, Odontoschisma sphagni, Bazzania trilobata, B. tricrenata, Lepidozia pearsoni, L. trichoclados, Lejeunea patens, Gymnomitrium obtusum, Campylopus atrovirens, Dicranum fuscescens, Rhabdoweissia denticulata, R. crenulata, Grimmia doniana, G. torquata, Anoectangium compactum, Bartramia halleriana, B. ithyphylla, Thuidium delicatulum, Plagiothecium pulchellum, Scorpidium scorpioides, Hypnum imponens, Ctenidium molluscum var. robustum Hylocomium brevirostre and H. umbratum.

19 April. For the last day's excursion members went by motor-coach to Barbon Village and from there walked up to Barbondale, a moderately steep sparsely wooded valley. By the beck Barbula spadicea was found, Plagiobryum zierii was found deep down in a gill, and many other species seen on previous day's excursions were seen including Pellia neesiana, Nowellia curvifolia, Trichocolea tomentella, Microlejeunea ulicina, Seligeria recurvata, Pohlia cruda, P. elongata, Anomobryum filiforme and Thamnium alopecurum

In the past Westmorland has been a 'happy hunting ground' for bryologists so that one could scarcely hope to add much to the rich bryophyte flora. Owing, no doubt, to the limited time spent in each extensive locality, and probably due to increased drainage, a number of rare species previously recorded were not found.

Many thanks are due to Dr E. M. Evans and to Mr R. Lewis for so kindly acting as excursion leaders, and also to our secretary Mr E. C. Wallace, as well as the leaders, for making such excellent arrangements throughout the meeting. The success and enjoyment of the meeting does them great credit. Thanks are also due to members who very kindly sent in lists of the bryophytes they had found during the excursion.


Annual Meeting 1956, Southampton, 29 March-2 April

The Easter field meeting of the British Bryological Society, held from 29 March to 2 April, used Southampton as a base from which to explore various parts of the New Forest. The twenty-four members who met on this occasion were particularly pleased to have the company of Mr H. Williams, a Canadian bryologist from Ontario who was over here for a short time studying our hepatic flora, but who has since returned to his own country. Throughout the weekend the weather remained fine though cold: while the rest of Britain was basking in the sun, people on the south coast had to be well wrapped against bitter north-east winds.

Within a comparatively small area the New Forest provides three distinct types of habitat, each with its characteristic vegetation. Flat-topped gravel plateaux, nowhere rising above 400 ft. O.D., are covered with a poor heath flora including a few scattered Scots pines. On the gentle slopes of the valleys, woods occupy well-drained soil derived from the underlying clays and loams where these are exposed. The valley bottoms are often waterlogged, supporting bog or fen. Each of these vegetation types was visited, and, in addition, a day was spent on the South Wiltshire chalk.


The Rufus Stone commemorating the death, while hunting in the forest, of William Rufus (1087-1100) is still surrounded by woodland. Mature beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur) and scattered holly (Ilex aquifolium) form a canopy so thick that few flowering plants grow beneath its shade. As a result, mosses such as Mnium hornum, Polytrichum formosum and species of Dicranum and Rhytidiadelphus are able to thrive; Leucobryum glaucum was found here with fruit. With an average annual rainfall of between 30 and 40 in. a luxuriant epiphytic flora is not expected: nevertheless, Frullania fragilifolia and Lejeunea planiuscula var. azorica were found amongst other more usual species, and Zygodon forsteri, one of the rarest of British mosses, discovered here by Dr Michael Proctor in 1954, was seen several feet up on a sloping beech trunk as well as on roots at ground level. Associated with Molinia and Erica tetralix in a small flushed patch were, among others, species of Sphagnum, Aulacomnium palustre, Riccardia pinguis, Saccogyna viticulosa and Bazzania trilobata. Neither of the two last-named is common in the south-eastern half of the country.

Whitley Wood near Lyndhurst has more of a heath-type flora, with birch, rowan and Scots pine beside oak, beech and holly. Dicranum montanum was growing well on some of the trees and Leucobryum glaucum was observed as an epiphyte.

The magnificent beeches near Highland Water were searched intensively and successfully for fruiting Pterogonium gracile and in the same locality Scleropodium illecebrum turned up unexpectedly on a bank beside the road.


Representatives of heath country were examined at St Catherine's Hill, and Burton and Hamptworth Commons. Except for a few scattered pines these are treeless and even the dwarf shrubs are kept low by regular burning. Calluna vulgaris and Erica cinerea are the most prominent constituents, with Molinia caerulea and Erica tetralix in the damper parts. The most interesting bryophytes found in this habitat were Dicranum spurium, Campylopus brevipilus and in one place, C. introflexus, a rare southern species, growing in quantity and fruiting.

Valley bog and fen

Fragments of bog vegetation which may be found amongst the heath communities in small pools and sloping flushes are similar in composition to the more extensive valley bogs such as Duckhole Bog near Rhinefield and Hamptworth Common. Erica tetralix and Molinia caerulea are abundant, with Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum common in the wetter parts. In Duckhole Bog eleven species of Sphagnum make an almost continuous carpet in which the higher plants grow, and each occupies a particular niche: S. compactum, S. tenellum and S. molle are found on the drier margins of the bog, S. rubellum forms small cushions in the bog itself, S. magellanicum and S. plumulosum are found in the wetter parts and S. cuspidatum submerged in pools. Splachnum ampullaceum (sterile), Funaria obtusa and Odontoschisma denudatum were among the other bryophytes seen.

Examples of fen vegetation were seen at Marlborough Deeps and near Holmsley. Disused clay pits at Marlborough Deeps have filled with water making numerous small pools, and at the margin of one of them was a distinct zonation showing the tolerance of each species to waterlogging:

{short description of image} SS = Scorpidium scorpioides
DR = Drepanocladus revolvens
CS = Campylium stellatum
AC = Acrocladium cuspidatum
CM = Ctenidium molluscum

Other species found in the vicinity were Acrocladium giganteum, Mnium punctatum, Drepanocladus revolvens var. intermedius and Campylium elodes.

The small fen near Holmsley provided rather a different aspect: Myrica gale and several Carices were to be found, together with a rich assemblage of bryophytes including Scorpidium scorpioides, Campylium stellatum, Cratoneuron commutatum var. falcatum and Preissia quadrata.

Chalk down and woodland at Dean Hill, South Wiltshire

In typical chalk grassland Pseudoscleropodium purum and Camptothecium lutescens were found with fruit, and some of us saw Entodon orthocarpus for the first time. Thuidium hystricosum and several of the small species such as Barbula hornschuchiana, Weissia sterilis and Aloina ambigua were noteworthy.

Dense yew woods clothe the northern slope of the hill. In the deep shade of the trees there is little growth of any kind, but in small clearings the scree is carpeted with species such as Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus and Ctenidium molluscum. Seligeria paucifolia was fruiting abundantly on chalk fragments, and Zygodon conoideus, one of our rarer Zygodon species with its characteristic gemmae, was collected from a fallen branch of yew.

All the five excursions were extremely well organized by Mrs Jean Paton and Dr Michael Proctor, who had obviously been to a great deal of trouble to ensure smooth running of all the arrangements. The Society's thanks are gratefully accorded to them, and also to Prof. Williams and staff of the Department of Botany, University of Southampton, who welcomed us at an informal reception held in the Department on the evening of Thursday, 29 March, and who allowed us to use the lecture theatre for the Annual General Meeting on Saturday, 31 March.

New Vice-county records made at the meeting

Hamptworth Common (V.C. 8): Campylopus brevipilus, C. flexuosus, Dicranum spurium, Hypnum imponens, Riccardia latifrons, Gymnocolea inflata, Lepidozia setacea, Sphagnum tenellum, S. molle.

Dean Hill (V.C. 8): Phascum curvicollum, Weissia sterilis.
St Catherine's Hill (V.C. 11): Orthocaulis attenuatus.
Marlborough Deeps (V.C. 11): Campylium elodes.
Rufus Stone (V.C. 11): Pohlia rothii.
Rhinefield Bog (V.C. 11): Lophozia incisa.



Summer Meeting 1956, Aviemore, 21 July-4 August

Aviemore in Inverness-shire was chosen, mainly on the suggestion of the President, for the summer meeting held from 21 July to 4 August. Thirty members attended, many for both weeks, some for shorter periods. Part of the ground visited lay within the Cairngorm Nature Reserve. Mr J. Grant Roger, who was with us part of the time, will be glad to have lists with data of plants observed by members, for the Nature Conservancy's archives. We were glad to have with us our member Mr Gillis Een, who, on a wet Sunday afternoon, very kindly entertained us with his colour slides of scenery and bryophytes from several lands and from the environs of Stockholm, his home district. It was expected that many new county records would be made, for several members had listed the possibilities for V.C.'s 94, 95 and 96, all of which came within our area, V.C. 95 being much closer than we had realized.

21 July. The first day's work was around Lochan Eilean, Ord Ban and its outcrops of basic rock, and Cairn Loch Gamhna. Plants found included Lophozia longidens on old junipers, Sphenolobus minutus c.per., S. saxicolus (a new locality), Chandonanthus setiformis var. alpinus, Cynodontium bruntoni, C. polycarpum, C. gracilescens* sparingly, Tetraplodon mnioides, Ulota drummondii, Antitrichia curtipendula, Plagiothecium roeseanum, Hypnum cupressiforme var. resupinatum*, and Ditrichum cylindricum from undisturbed ground in an old stone working on Ord Ban, detected, needless to say, by Dr Jones.

[* = New v.c. record]

22 July. The visit to the Pass of Ryvoan was primarily to see Sphenolobus saxicolus, although it had been found the day before. It occurred amongst the tumbled boulders near the loch, with Lophozia floerkei, L.. hatcheri, L. attenuata, Anastrepta orcadensis and much Chandonanthus setiformis var. alpinus, which in fact proved locally abundant in many localities in the district. Other species seen included Douinia ovata, Calypogeia neesiana, Scapania gracilis (scarce), Cynodontium strumiferum, Dicranum spurium in an unusual habitat among rocks, Zygodon mougeotii, and Fontinalis squamosa During the wet afternoon fine Ptilium crista-castrensis was seen in the pine woods by Loch Morlich. Mr Crundwell found Archidium alternifolium*, on the loch shore.

23 July. The stony road up to Achlean on the right bank of the Feshie was taken, when we climbed up over Carn Ban Mor to work the crags at the head of Loch Einich. The rock is somewhat basic with a more varied flora than on the adjacent granite forming Sgoran Dubh. On Carn Ban Mor we noted Moerckia blyttii, Marsupella aquatica, Nardia compressa, Lophozia alpestris, Dicranum falcatum, D. starkei, Pohlia ludwigii, Philonotis seriata and Conostomum tetragonum. Rain hampered work on the crags, but we saw Anastrophyllum donianum, Jamesoniella carringtoni, Lepidozia pearsoni, Scapania nimbosa, S. ornithopodioides, Arctoa fulvella, Dicranodontium uncinatum abundantly, Tetraphis browniana* and Ctenidium molluscum var. condensatum. Several of these hepatics and also Dicranodontium uncinatum are widespread and locally abundant on the hills of the western highlands, becoming progressively scarcer eastwards. In the Cairngorm massif, however, there are several corries where the two Scapanias, Anastrophyllum donianum and sometimes Jamesoniella carringtoni occur. Anastrophyllum donianum is found as far east as Lochnagar, the Scapanias not as yet beyond Coire Etchachan.

24 July. An easy day was now taken on the low ground of Abernethy Forest. A stretch of boggy moorland near Wester Tulloch yielded Lophozia kunzeana, Dicranum spurium, Splachnum ampullaceum in beautiful fruit, Mnium affine, and in an adjacent woodland Dicranum montanum*, D. strictum, Orthotrichum speciosum, Drepanocladus fluitans* and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Elsewhere in Abernethy Lophozia porphyroleuca, Cephalozia leucantha, Frullania fragilifolia, Sphagnum magellanicum, Orthotrichum striatum, O. Speciosum, which is widespread in the Spey valley, were seen. Near Loch Vaa (V.C. 95) there were noted Fossombronia dumortieri, Lophozia bicrenata, Ephemerum serratum and Pohlia bulbifera*.

25 July. This day will be remembered for the long walk from Loch Morlich to the ridge between Cairngorm and Cairn Lochan, most of the time being spent in the 'snowy corrie' which was exceedingly windy. Most of the party reached the higher slopes to observe and note the conditions of growth for such plants of the high places as Andreaea nivalis, Polytrichum norvegicum, Arctoa fulvella, Dicranum starkei, D. glaciale, Ditrichum zonarum, Pohlia ludwigii, P. albicans var. glacialis, Amphidium lapponicum, Plagiothecium platyphyllum, Moerckia blyttii, Gymnomitrium varians, Lophozia opacifolia*, Anthelia juratzkana, and Pleuroclada albescens (rather poor). Amongst boulders on the corrie floor there was Scapania nimbosa, and in the burn Marsupella sphacelata, Harpanthus flotowianus, Scapania uliginosa, and Acrocladium sarmentosum very fine. Anastrepta orcadensis occurred with Lepidozia pearsoni under heather in the lower part of the corrie.

26 July. As it is the Society's policy to visit and examine new ground, the virtually unknown ground of the Monadhliaths had to be included in the programme. Glen Banchor, in which several small promising corries are found, was chosen and most members reached the crags about Loch Dubh. Near the loch there occurred Grimmia apocarpa var. gracilis*, G. patens, Bryum mildeanum*, B. muehlenbeckii*, Philonotis seriata and Pterygynandrum filiforme. The crags were of somewhat basic rock and yielded Moerckia blyttii, Gymnomitrium crenulatum*, Anastrophyllum donianum, Lophozia alpestris, Radula lindbergiana, Dicranum blyttii, Grimmia funalis, G. torquata, Barbula ferruginascens, Pohlia drummondii, P. rothii, Plagiobryum zierii, Bartramia pomiformis var. crispa, Pseudoleskea patens, Eurhynchium swartzii*, Isothecium myosuroides var. brachythecioides*, Plagiothecium pulchellum and P. striatellum.

On Cam Macoul Dr Jones collected Calypogeia trichomanis, leaf cells with deep blue oil-bodies and the whole plant of a bluish green tint. It was mixed with C. muelleriana. In woods at the lower end of Glen Banchor, Plagiochila spinulosa occurred, a local plant on Speyside.

27 July. The weather was good for our visit to Glen Feshie, which was just as well, as members were expecting a good day from the knowledge that the secretary had found some very interesting plants in 1951, including Tortula subulata var. graeffii and Ctenidium procerrimum. These were found again in different ravines on the ground worked about two or three miles beyond the Lodge. The members split up into several groups to cover more ground, and all encountered some of their desiderata and more besides.

Amongst his gatherings Dr Warburg later recognized two plants not before recorded in the British Isles, Weissia wimmeriana and Grimmia atrofusca. Mr C. C. Townsend found Rhytidium rugosum* (which has recently been found in several new areas in Scotland), but later he discovered some Saelania caesia* amongst his plants. Hitherto this plant was scarcely known in Scotland except sparingly in Clova. On the crags northeast of Lochan an t' Sluic the rotten rocks were very basic, the usual species (headed by Distichium capillaceum) of such places being present, and in addition Leiocolea mulleri, Cephalozia pleniceps, Scapania aequiloba, Cololejeunea calcarea, Amphidium lapponicum, Myurella julacea, Pseudoleskea catenulata var. acuminata*, and Amblystegiella sprucei*. In the vicinity of Creag Bheag further species noted were Encalypta rhabdocarpa*, Trichostomum crispulum *, Grimmia apocarpa var. gracilis, Bartramia halleriana*, both Orthotheciums, Campylium sommerfeltii*, Isothecium myosuroides var. brachythecioides, Hygrohypnum eugyrium and Hypnum hamulosum. From a rocky slope on west side of Allt Lorgaidh, Mr Crundwell noted Fissidens viridulus (alt. 2000 ft.), Philonotis tomentella*, Mnium orthorrhynchum, Plagiopus oederi and Metzgeria pubescens. On old junipers near the Lodge Dicranum strictum and Lophozia longidens were refound. An interesting feature of Glen Feshie is the low altitude at which some plants were found, Ctenidium procerrimum and non-viviparous Poa alpina being examples at well below 2000 ft. All the ground in upper Glen Feshie would well repay further examination.

28 July. Time was up for some members; those staying on mostly went to the Culbin Sands, searching for maps or mosses on the way. Grantown on Spey yielded both maps for Haplomitrium hookeri which was the main objective, and Cynodontium jenneri in an adjacent pine wood. The rendezvous for three car-loads of bryologists was an extensive waste of sand and pine plantations in various stages of development with attractive damp slacks here and there, separated by leagues of brushwood-covered barrens. Diligent searching for Haplomitrium rewarded Mrs J. W. Fitzgerald and others, Fossombronia dumortieri, Cephaloziella rubella and C. hampeana showing up in the process.

Other hepatics observed included Marchantia polymorpha var. aquatica, Riccardia sinuata, R. pinguis with gemmae, Lophozia excisa, L. barbata, L. hatcheri, Scapania gracilis, S. compacta and Odontoschisma denudatum with the rare lichen Stereocaulon glareosum. Lophozia hatcheri occurred in a robust form which was taken at first sight for L. lycopodioides. Mosses found included Bryum pendulum, Mnium rugicum, Brachythecium mildeanum*, Campylium polygamum, whilst Tortula ruraliformis and Brachythecium albicans appeared to be scarce. Rain set in on the evening drive back to Aviemore, curtailing our activities until Tuesday 31 July except for a few sallies forth in search of Buxbaumia in the shelter of pine woods. One of these was successful near Loch Vaa, also providing Pohlia annotina var. decipiens, V.C. 95.

31 July. In Glen Tromie, five miles west of Glen Feshie, we had unknown ground, consisting of birchwood and a rocky steep hillside near Glen Tromie lodge. Species seen included Cynodontium bruntoni, C. jenneri, C. polycarpum and C. strumiferum, Mnium affine*, Ulota drummondii, Orthothecium intricatum, Hylocomium umbratum, Riccia sorocarpa, Riccardia palmata, Lophozia longidens, L. hatcheri, Douinia ovata, Crossocalyx hellerianus sparingly, Plagiochila spinulosa, and abundant Chandonanthus.

1 August. Our next essay at the high ground took us up the Cairngorm path to the summit, 4084 ft., With a diversion around the northeast slopes for Moerckia blyttii, Marsupella sphacelata, Gymnomitrium alpinum, Polytrichum norvegicum and Dicranum glaciale. In a dry mist we groped our way down into the head of Loch Avon, past the head of Coire an t' Sneachda and Cairn Lochan to the crags above the Lairig Ghru. The ground draining into Loch Avon being in Banff, we were on the look-out for species not recorded, and noted Marsupella ustulata*, and Nardia breidleri*. A little Cephalozia ambigua was seen, and much Pleuroclada albescens, rather poor compared with the Ben Nevis plant. Mr Crundwell gathered Marsupella stableri, and the Secretary various Gymnomitriums and Marsupellas that will take time to examine, if he has any! Many forms of Dicranum fuscescens occurred near snow patches; Andreaea nivalis was very poor.

2 August. Nowhere near at hand on the Monadhliath seemed more attractive than Creag Mheagaidh at the far western end, as a rumour of good ground in Coire Ardair caught our imagination. In 1870 Prof. T. Barker had recorded Dicranum elongatum, and in 1955 Dr C. D. Pigott reported interesting ground on the extensive plateau above the corrie. After an hour's drive, a pleasant walk up Coire Ardair brought us to the loch at just over 2000 ft. with great gullied cliffs towering up another 1500 ft. On and amongst marginal boulders were Grimmia hartmanii, Leptodontium recurvifolium, Pterygynandrum filiforme, Thuidium delicatulum, Hylocomium umbratum and Herberta adunca. The foot of the cliffs and the gullies yielded Barbula ferruginascens, Encalypta ciliata, Mnium orthorrhynchum* Amphidium lapponicus, Pseudoleskea patens, Brachythecium starkei, Plagiothecium striatellum, Hylocomium pyrenaicum, Jamesoniella carringtoni and Anastrophyllum donianum. Mr Crundwell found Philonotis seriata and Hygrohypnum ochraceum, and went through the 'Window' to find, near the Lochan Uaine on Creag Mheagaidh, Diplophyllum taxifolium, Scapania nimbosa, S. paludosa, and a promise of more good ground on a future visit. The hills in this area, and those about Ben Alder south of Loch Laggan are almost unknown bryologically, and are in need of investigation to show among other things how far east the plants of the western Highlands may come. The presence or absence of such conveniently distinct and conspicuous plants such as Pleurozia purpurea and Herberta hutchinsiae is easily established as a guide to the occurrence of others in this group that are less easily noticed.

On the last two days of the week the party was thinned by departures, but more work was done in Strath Nethy, and on Braeriach by Dr Jones. Miss Bexon was rewarded by finding Buxbaumia aphylla after a long search near Loch Garten, and the secretary concluded with Dicranum strictum* at the Hotel on a stump (V.C. 95).

Our sincere thanks are due to those members who helped with their cars to make the meeting so successful and enjoyable.


Annual Meeting 1957, Barnstaple, 24-29 April

The Easter Meeting was held in Barnstaple, Devon, from 24 to 29 April, and between thirty-five and forty members attended. Although not many new records were made, a number of species of rather limited distribution were encountered.

The following plants are new to North Devon, V.C. 4: Bryum erythrocarpum var. haegelmaieri, Campylium chrysophyllum, Cinclidotus mucronatus, Drepanocladus sendtneri var. wilsonii, Fissidens monguillonii, Fontinalis squamosa, Grimmia laevigata, Gyroweissia tenuis, Lejeunea lamacerina var. azorica, Porella pinnata.

25 April. The party travelled by coach to Clovelly, notable for access being solely by a long series of stone steps. The size of the empty car park above the village was an ominous reminder of conditions during the holiday season. Members split into groups to examine the steep cliffs and woods, in particular those on the Hobby to the south east of Clovelly. Damp slipped earth on the cliffs yielded Philonotis rigida, Epipterygium tozeri and two species of Anthoceros, A. laevis and a large plant which appears to be A. husnotii. Other plants found were Eucalyx hyalinus, Eucladium verticillatum, Frullania microphylla, Fissidens curnowii, Grimmia maritima, Lejeunea lamacerina var. azorica, Orthotrichum striatum, Plagiochila spinulosa, Saccogyna viticulosa, Trichostomum brachydontium and Ulota bruchii.

26 April. The Society next explored the woods and exposed sea cliffs between Hunter's Inn and Woody Bay. In the lower part of the valley of the River Heddon Cinclidotus fontinaloides was found on stones in the river, Pleuridium acuminatum on bare sandy ground near the cliff top and Grimmia trichophylla on exposed rocks. Other species seen here were Cryphaea heteromalla, Bryum erythrocarpum var. haegelmaieri, Dicranum scottianum, Epipterygium tozeri, Schistostega osmundacea and Zygodon viridissimus var. occidentalis. On recently burned ground on the cliff top a small tussock of Sphagnum plumulosum was seen. At Hollow Brook, where a stream tumbles over a north-facing rock outcrop, there were extensive patches of Jubula hutchinsiae on the undersides of the rock ledges, and Heterocladium heteropterum on stones beside the stream. Other species seen nearby included Bartramia pomiformis, Cephalozia media, Scapania compacta and S. gracilis. Near Woody Bay, the great exposure was shown by an extensive yew wood adhering to an almost vertical cliff face, above being an oakwood where the maximum height of the trees was limited by the onshore winds. Species found at Woody Bay included Gyroweissia tenuis, Dichodontium pellucidum and Ulota bruchii.

27 April. The weather remained fine and sunny for our visit to Braunton Burrows. The party was guided over the dune system by Dr Willis, who kindly provided a list of bryophytes recorded from the area by the Botany Department at Bristol University. The slacks to the east of the dunes were visited first, and Bryum pendulum, Campylium chrysophyllum, C. polygamum, Drepanocladus lycopodioides, D. sendtneri var. wilsonii and Leiocolea turbinata were collected. Cryphaea heteromalla and Zygodon viridissimus were seen as epiphytes on willows. Slacks close to and amongst the unfixed dunes produced fine growths of fruiting Petalophyllum ralfsii, together with Moerckia flotowiana and Riccardia pinguis. A search for Amblyodon dealbatus and Bryum calophyllum was unfortunately unsuccessful. A few members also visited the locality for Barbula cordata at Saunton, where it was seen in some quantity associated with an interesting calcicole flora.

The Annual General Meeting was held in the evening at the Imperial Hotel, Barnstaple, in a room provided by the Management. Haverfordwest, Pembroke, was elected for the Spring Meeting in 1958, and Barnard Castle, Co. Durham, for the Summer Meeting.

28 April. The Society next turned its attentions to some inland localities, which though virtually unexplored bryologically had nevertheless produced a few promising species suggesting that more detailed collecting would be worth while. The first stop, in the valley of the River Mole, 1½ miles west of George Nympton, yielded numerous interesting plants including Fissidens monguillonii, F. curnowii, Fontinalis squamosa, Porella pinnata, Rhodobryum roseum and Ulota phyllantha. The coach next moved on towards Bias Wood,1½ miles north-west of King's Nympton, but became almost wedged in a narrow Devonian lane, and the party was compelled to abandon its vehicle and proceed on foot. Bias Wood covers a steep north-facing slope extending down to the river, and especially in its lower part yielded an interesting flora. Luxuriant growths of Hookeria lucens grew on areas of flushed black humus-rich soil around shaded springs, associated with Riccardia pinguis and Trichocolea tomentella. A number of species were encountered by the river here, including Cinclidotus fontinaloides, C. mucronatus, Fissidens curnowii, Fossombronia sp., Orthotrichum lyellii and O. rivulare. Damp ground near a spring yielded Dicranella squarrosa and Philonotis fontana, whilst other species seen included Bazzania trilobata, Dicranum majus, Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum, Metzgeria fruticulosa, Neckera pumila, Plagiothecium undulatum and Rhytidiadelphus loreus.

The Society was most grateful to Miss M. E. Owen, a local resident for guiding them during the day, and also for the lavish tea which she so kindly provided in the grounds of her bungalow. After this much appreciated refreshment, the party returned to the coach, which had by then most fortunately been extracted from the lane.

29 April. As many of the party returned home on the Sunday, there were insufficient remaining to justify the hiring of a coach, and members split into small groups to explore areas of their own choice. Those who visited the cliffs between Lee and Ilfracombe were rewarded with several interesting species, in spite of the dryness of the day, including Fissidens curnowii, Rhynchostegiella pallidirostra, Schistostega osmundacea and a crop of Grimmias - G. laevigata, G. subsquarrosa and G. trichophylla.

The Society's thanks go to all who helped with the organization of the meeting, and especially to Mr Wallace and Mr Peterken. The writer is most grateful to those who sent lists of species collected during this visit to Barnstaple.


Summer Meeting 1957, Galway, 17-30 August

Despite the petrol rationing earlier in the year which threatened to interfere with arrangements for the meeting, a party of fourteen assembled in Salthill, Co. Galway, on the evening of 17 August. The meeting had two objects; to give members the opportunity of seeing and exploring the better-known localities in North Clare (V.C. H. 9) and in West Galway (V.C. H. 16) and to do something towards improving our knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the eastern parts of Co. Galway (V.C.'s H. 15 and H. 17) which had hitherto been poorly recorded. Salthill was our headquarters for the first week, and from here we made excursions to the Burren of Clare, the limestone plain of eastern Galway, a sandstone valley on the flanks of the Slieve Aughty Mountains, and to the slate hills in the extreme south of Co. Mayo, For the second week we moved to Clifden, and from here explored a number of localities in Connemara. These provided habitats ranging from calcareous sand-dunes to blanket bog, and from old walls in Clifden to wet schistose rocks at more than 2000ft. During the first week the party travelled comfortably in three private cars. With the departure of two members with a car and the arrival of one without, transport for the second week presented a problem. All would have been well if a visitor from Belfast, due to join us at Clifden, had not turned her car over and put it out of action somewhere in the central Irish plain. The transport problem was solved, however, largely through the gallantry of the male members. Sincerest thanks are due to those members who put their cars at the disposal of the party; the meeting could not have taken the form which it did without their co-operation. We were delighted in the first week to have the company of the distinguished Swedish bryologist, Mrs Elsa Nyholm, and again in the second week to discover that Prof. P. W. Richards and his family were on holiday in Connemara and were able to join us for our last excursion.

18 August. Although the day was cloudy it was dry and members were anxious for a full-day excursion. Most of the day was spent on the limestone slopes and pavements in the vicinity of Blackhead at the north-west extremity of the Burren Hills (V.C. H.9). For a locality with such a strange mixture of rare vascular plants the bryophytes were disappointing but several new records were made: Riccia beyrichiana*, Preissia quadrata*, Solenostoma triste*, Leiocolea turbinata*, L. badensis*, Cololejeunea calcarea*, Gymnostomum aeruginosum*, and G. recurvirostrum*. During the afternoon the party moved southwards along the coast to a small area of sand-dunes near Murroogh. Here Fissidens crassipes* was found on boulders in the highly calcareous River Caher, along with Eucladium verticillatum and Scorpiurium circinatum. Other interesting species found during the day were Marchesinia mackaii, Pleurochaete squarrosa and Bryum rufifolium.

[* = New v.c. record]

19 August. It was decided to devote this day of low cloud and intermittent rain to an exploratory tour of V.C. H.l7. The first stop was made at a fen about 3 miles north of Galway City, on the Headford Road. Here, the water-level was low, and it was possible to penetrate well into the reed swamp. A number of new records were made, mainly from the lower zones: Riccardia pinguis*, Preissia quadrata*, Fissidens viridulus*, and Drepanocladus lycopodioides*.

A second stop was made to examine one of a group of raised bogs which occupy the low ground near the mouths of Rivers Clare and Cregg. The first plant to excite interest here was Campylopus introflexus, which was found growing on the cut surfaces of the peat in great abundance and with capsules. More new records were made, mainly of common species: Mylia anomala *, Odontoschisma sphagni*, O. denudatum*, Dicranella cerviculata*, Campylopus atrovirens*, C. brevipilus*, Brachythecium mildeanum* and Sphagnum subsecundum var. inundatum*.

A brief halt was next made at a small area of moist woodland near Grange and several more plants were added to the V.C. lists: Metzgeria fruticulosa*, Cololejeunea minutissima*, Frullania dilatata*, Bryum inclinatum*, Zygodon viridissimus var. viridissimus*, Amblystegium varium*, and Hypnum cupressiforme var. resupinatum*. Among the other plants collected here was Zygodon conoideus, a plant which was frequently to be seen again during the fortnight.

The last main stopping place for the party was the turlough at Killower, 4 miles west of Tuam. The ground on the eastern side was made up of thin layers of fen peat interbedded with highly calcareous marl and in the sparse turf here were recorded Reboulia hemisphaerica, Moerkia flotowiana*, Pellia fabroniana*, Leiocolea badensis*, Pohlia delicatula*, Bryum neodamense, Amblyodon dealbatus*, Breutelia chrysocoma*, Hypnum cupressiforme var. tectorum* and Hylocomium brevirostre*. Despite the rain Mrs Nyholm and Mr Crundwell delayed the return of one car to look for Bryum salinum* on the salt-marshes several miles east of Galway City. They not only found it, but they also added Tortella flavovirens* to the day's records.

20 August. After a pleasant run the party left the cars just above Strahnalong to the south-west of Maumtrasna. The day was spent in exploring the attractive valley on the east side of Skeltia (1926 ft.). As we were now in West Mayo (V.C. H.27) few new records were expected, but some interesting plants were found. Rocks in the stream yielded Bryum mildeanum*, and on the thin blanket bog of the valley Miss Lobley found Nowellia curvifolia, Dicranella cerviculata*, Amblyodon dealbatus, and Sphagnum strictum*. More interesting finds were made among the boulders at the foot of the cliffs and on the rocks of the cliffs themselves: Plagiochila tridenticulata, Bazzania bicrenata, B. pearsoni, Herberta hutchinsiae, Radula aquilegia, Colura calyptrifolia, Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia, Harpalejeunea ovata, Oligotrichum hercynicum var. laxum*, Campylopus setifolius*, Trichostomum hibernicum*, Pohlia nutans*, P. annotina*, Isothecium myosuroides var. brachythecioides and Ctenidium molluscum var. condensatum*. Those who negotiated the steep ground at the head of the valley and reached the summit plateau were rewarded by the sight of deep blanket peat undergoing rapid erosion, a sight common to many Irish hills. Two more records were added from the high ground: Polytrichum alpestre* and Acrocladium sarmentosum*.

21 August. Efforts were concentrated today on the exploration of Garryland Wood, a few miles north-west of Gort, in South Galway (V.C. H. 15). The wood has a very long history and it differs from many other 'crag-land woods' in possessing, at least in parts, a soil from which the calcium carbonate has been more or less completely leached out of the superficial horizons. Although a considerable acreage has been planted with larch, pine and spruce, there is so much natural regeneration of ash and beech and so many groups of the older trees left standing that a wide variety of habitats is still provided. The more low-lying parts form a series of turloughs, each with its own water regime. At the time of our visit one such depression had the appearance of a moist pasture, another appeared as an extensive lake. The woods themselves, the rides, and the small patches of exposed limestone soon yielded new records: Riccia sorocorpa*, Metzgeria fruticulosa*, Lophocolea fragrans*, Cololejeunea minutissima*, Marchesinia mackaii*, Barbula reflexa*, Pohlia albicans*, Zygodon conoideus*, Orthotrichum affine*, Homalia trichomanoides*, Thuidium delicatulum*, Campylium chrysophyllum*, Drepanocladus uncinatus*, Rhynchostegiella tenella* and Hypnum cupressiforme var. tectorum*. The very large range of water level was indicated strikingly by the height to which Cinclidotus fontinaloides and Leskea polycarpa* grew as epiphytes on the larger trees surrounding the turloughs. The turloughs themselves were productive : Porella cordeana*, Physcomitrella patens*, Pohlia delicatula*, Mnium rugicum*, and Amblystegium varium*.

22 August. A second day was spent in Co. Clare (V.C. H. 9), and the main object of our attention was the relict ash wood on the sheltered south-east facing cliffs of Slievecarran, along the east side of the Burren Hills. Except where disturbed by the instability of the cliff the wood itself is dense enough to possess a distinct shade flora. On the earthy slopes and bare pavements below it there is a great deal of hazel scrub which varies considerably in height and in density. Mr Crundwell soon reported Ulota vittata* growing on the hazel, but the two most interesting finds of the day, Seligeria doniana* and Anomobryum concinnatum*, only came to light when Mrs Appleyard examined her gatherings some months later. In addition to the Ulota the trees and shrubs yielded Metzgeria fruticulosa*, Lejeunea ulicina* and Orthotrichum striatum*. Limestone boulders in the shade of the hazel scrub yielded Cololejeunea rossettiana*, Fissidens minutulus* Sull. sec. Braithw., Barbula spadicea*, Thuidium delicatulum*, Amblystegium confervoides*, Brachythecium glareosum*, and Isopterygium depressum* Two more records were made from the small patches of short pasture maintained by the sheep amongst the hazel: Physcomitrella patens* and Pohlia albicans*.

23 August. From an examination of the Census Catalogues it was clear that little attention had been paid to the relatively small area of non-calcareous ground in V.C. H. 15. By way of remedying this deficiency it was decided to spend a day exploring the valley of the Owendalulleegh River on the west side of the Slieve Aughty Mountains, the solid geology here being Devonian Sandstone. The search began in Chevy Chase, an area of estate woodland now largely replanted and carrying young conifers. The rides proved productive, with Riccia glauca*, Fossombronia wondraczeki*, Ditrichum cylindricum*, Pseudephemerum nitidum* and Pottia truncata*. Epiphytic species were only abundant in the older stands, but here Neckera pumila was strikingly luxuriant and several new records were made: Lejeunea patens*, Lejeunea ulicina*, Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia*, Harpalejeunea ovata*, and Zygodon conoideus*. Other species recorded from the woods were: Riccardia palmata*, Plagiochila asplenioides var. major*, Lophocolea cuspidata*, Calypogeia fissa*, C. arguta*, Nowellia curvifolia*, Polytrichum gracile* and Anomobryum filiforme*.

After lunch one half of the party moved up on to the hill above the woods to examine the thin blanket bog and recorded: Dicranella heteromalla*, Campylopus setifolius*, C. brevipilus*, Funaria obtusa*, Bryum argenteum* (roadside), Ulota americana* (boulders), Sphagnum compactum*, S. contortum*, S. rubellum*, S. nemoreum* and S. molle*. The other half of the party descended on to the limestone plain and examined a series of localities near Lough Cultra. The first was an area of fen carr; Cryphaea heteromalla* and Acrocladium cordifolium* were gathered here. Nearby where the fen peat was overlain by a thin layer of moss peat Cephalozia connivens* and Brachythecium mildeanum* were recorded. A quick halt by a small rock outcrop near Killafeen added Barbula hornschuchiana* and Rhacomitrium canescens*. The party was re-united at the Punchbowl where the outflow from Lough Cultra passes underground. The rocky stream bed itself yielded Porella pinnata*, Marchesinia mackaii, Lejeunea lamacerina var. azorica, Fissidens pusillus*, Hygroamblystegium tenax*, Eurhynchium riparioides*, Rhynchostegiella pallidirostra*, and R. teesdalei*. The surrounding woodland contributed Pellia fabroniana* Scapania aspera*, Tortula marginata*, Barbula reflexa and Trichostomum sinuosum*.

24 August. The move to Clifden was completed during the morning and a short afternoon excursion was planned to Doon Hill and Bunowen Bay to the south-west of Ballyconeely. Members had scarcely left the cars when they were scattered by an extremely heavy shower of rain. This brought the excursion to a premature end but not before Mr Crundwell had collected Bryum pendulum* and Campylium chrysophyllum*.

During the following week those members actually staying in the town of Clifden found time to examine its bryophyte flora. From a variety of habitats they listed Aloina ambigua*, Phascum cuspidatum*, Barbula convoluta var. commutata*, Pohlia delicatula*, Eurhynchium swartzii*, E. confertum* and Hypnum patientiae*.

25 August. The morning was spent in exploring the riverside woods near Tullywee Bridge, about 2 miles west of Kylemore. The woods themselves were disappointing, but voucher specimens of Metzgeria fruticulosa*, Plagiochila asplenioides var. major*, Cephaloziella starkii* and Lepidozia reptans* were collected. The roadside walls and banks were as productive with: Riccardia multifida*, Pellia fabroniana*, Anthoceros laevis* and Gymnostomum calcareum*.

In the afternoon the party moved on to Lough Fee. We stopped long enough on a monotonous piece of blanket bog near the southern end of the lough for Miss Lobley to collect Nowellia curvifolia, Odontoschisma denudatum* and Sphagnum subsecundum*, and then motored on leaving the cars between Lough Fee and Lough Muck. Members now scattered to explore the north-eastern side of Benchoona and the steep valley between it and Garraun. The oceanic influence was seen particularly on the more northerly slopes of Benchoona, where stones projecting from the short mountain turf were half covered by Hymenophyllum wilsoni, Plagiochila spinulosa, Bazzania tricrenata and Scapania gracilis. Among the many interesting species seen were Fossombronia foveolata, Marsupella aquatica*, Solenostoma pumilum*, Lophozia quinquedentata*, Mylia cuneifolia, Herberta hutchinsiae, Radula aquilegia, Colura calyptrifolia, Jubula hutchinsiae, Barbula ferruginascens*, Trichostomum hibernicum, Leptodontium recurvifolium*, Bryum mildeanum*, Isopterygium elegans*, Hypnum callichroum* and Hylocomium umbratum*. Before we left, two more records were made by the shores of Lough Muck: Archidium alternifolium* and Funaria hygrometrica*.

26 August. Exciting discoveries were expected from our visit to the woodlands at Ballynahinch. We knew that the area had been maintained as a wooded estate since early times and that neglected oak scrub extended down to the lough shore. After consultation with Mr P. M. O'Flaherty, the forester-in-charge, we decided to concentrate our attention on an area of lough-side woods not far from the castle and on a wooded ravine at the western end. A few interesting plants were found in the woodland, e.g. Lophocolea fragrans, Trichocolea tomentella, Ulota vittata* and Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum*, but most of the new records made came from the streams and roadsides: Riccia warnstorfii*, R. glauca*, R. sorocarpa*, Fossombronia pusilla*, F. caespitiformis*, Calypogeia fissa*, Lejeunea lamacerina var. lamacerina*, Fissidens pusillus*, Ditrichum cylindricum*, Barbula hornschuchiana*, Bryum bicolor var. gracilentum* and Brachythecium plumosum*. The day taught us to take nothing for granted in Ireland.

27 August. Two very different types of country were included in the day's itinerary, the sand-dunes and maritime grassland of Dog's Bay and the bog-land to the north of Errisbeg: both near Roundstone. The short turf and rocks at Dog's Bay yielded: Porella thuja, Frullania germana, Chiloscyphus pallescens,* Barbula rigidula*, Mnium cuspidatum*, Orthotrichum rupestre, O. cupulatum, Thuidium philiberti*, Amblystegium serpens var. salinum*, Drepanocladus aduncus*, Brachythecium mildeanum* and Hypnum cupressiforme vars. tectorum* and lacunosum*. Two members were tempted to the top of Errisbeg but had little to report when they rejoined the party beyond a wonderful view. The remainder worked westwards from the neighbour-hood of Letterdife House across a mosaic of bog types. Members were able to see something of the strange behaviour of such plants as Phragmites, Schoenus, Cladium and Carex lasiocarpa on these western Irish bogs. The rarer Sphagna were searched for hopefully but only Sphagnum pulchrum* and S. subsecundum var. inundatum* could be added to the day's list.

28 August. The Twelve Pins presented a problem, both of size and accessibility. This was met by the formation of two small parties; one directed at Ben Lettery from the road in the south and the other at Muchanaght along the line of the Kylemore River, from the north-east. Both groups found good ground and had interesting finds to report. The Ben Lettery group recorded Blasia pusilla*, Anastrepta orcadensis, Herberta hurchinsiae, Scapania irrigua*, Trichostomum hibernicum, Isothecium myosuroides var. brachythecioides, Orthothecium intricatum, Isopterygium pulchellum*, Sphagnum strictum*, S. quinquefarium and S. molle*. Mr R. Lewis followed the summit of the quartzite ridge to find Dicranodontium uncinatum* on Bengower. In the north Mr Crundwell, following a hunch, crossed the steep slopes above Glencorbet and made for Benbaun. On a small outcrop of highly calcareous rock at about 700ft. he found Leiocolea muelleri*, Scapania aspera, Cololejeunea calcarea*, Gymnostomum calcareum, Mnium orthorhynchum* and M. marginatum*. On the north side of Benbaun, at about 1500 ft., were Mastigophora woodsii*, Scapania ornithopodioides, Radula aquilegia, Dicranodontium denudatum* and Orthothecium intricatum. The weathering schist on the north side of Muchanaght, extending up to about 2000 ft., carried most of the species noted on non-calcareous rock elsewhere and also: Bazzania pearsoni*, Scapania aequiloba*, Porella laevigata*, Polytrichum alpinum, Rhabdoweissia fugax, R. crenulata, Leptodontium recurvifolium, Splachnum ovatum*, Pohlia cruda*, Pohlia rothii* and Hylocomium umbratum.

29 August. The woods around Kylemore Castle had been expected to prove very productive, but after our experiences at Tullywee Bridge and Ballynahinch we were less optimistic. Some interesting plants were found, however, including: Hygrobiella laxifolia, Radula voluta, Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia, Lejeunea holtii*, Harpalejeunea ovata, Marchesinia mackaii, Jubula hutchinsiae, Frullania microphylla, F. fragillifolia*, Fissidens pusillus, F. taxifolius*, Zygodon conoideus and Hypnum cupressiforme var. mamillatum*. The party separated into two groups for the afternoon; one group returned to the area of Lough Fee, where they recorded Grimmia retracta* and Bryum obconicum*; the other went to the low ground lying north of Lough Inagh. Two of the second party penetrated as far as the corrie north of Bencollaghduff and recorded: Riccardia sinuata*, Solenostoma sphaerocarpa*, Lepidozia trichoclados*, Dicranodontium uncinatum and Hylocomium umbratum.

30 August. Lissoughter, a low isolated hill just east of the Twelve Pins, was chosen as the scene of our final excursion. The weather was bad as we slowly climbed the west side looking for signs of base-rich rocks. Although we found low cliffs with Asplenium viride and Saxifraga oppositifolia, the bryophytes were disappointing, the most interesting being: Diphyscium foliosum, Grimmia funalis, Glyphomitrium daviesii and Ulota americana. Some members had to leave in the early afternoon, but a small party was left to examine the woodland at the north end of Derryclare Lough. The woods yielded: Frullania germana, Eucladium verticillatum*, Zygodon conoideus, Isothecium striatulum* and Isopterygium depressum. Grimmia retracta and G. decipiens were collected from boulders on the lough shore.

I should like to express the thanks of the party to The Very Reverend, The Lady Abbess at Kylemore, to the Forestry Division of the Department of Lands and their foresters Mr P. M. O'Flaherty and Mr T. P. Cox for facilitating our visits to Kylemore woods, Ballynahinch, Garryland Wood and Chevy Chase, respectively. I should like also to add my personal thanks to the members attending the meeting for their cheerful co-operation while they were in Ireland and subsequently for their help in the preparation of this account. The small number attending, the mobility of the party, and the large number of new records to be made gave the meeting a distinctive character. Although our finds excel in quantity rather than in quality perhaps we have demonstrated the value of this type of meeting in dealing with the more poorly recorded parts of the British Isles.


NOTE This account was prepared before all the plants listed in it as N.C.R.'s had been checked, and accepted by the recorders. Census Catalogues should therefore be amended only by reference to the lists of N.C.R.'s prepared by the recorders.

Annual Meeting 1958, Pembroke, 4-9 April

The Society held its Easter Meeting from 4 to 9 April in Pembrokeshire, the south-west promontory of Wales. It began in showers of snow, but the weather soon improved, and from the afternoon of 4 April was mainly sunny, if chilly, to the end. A considerable number of new records were made by the following members: Miss U. K. Duncan, Mrs Paton, A. C. Crundwell, R. Lewis, A. H. Norkett, F. A. Sowter and E. F. Warburg. Of exceptional interest was the discovery of a moss new to the British Isles by Mr Norkett, who detected Fissidens flexinervis Mitt. on 3 April before the meeting began. It was growing in Little Treffgarne Woods on the clay side of the Spittal Brook. He reports that the stream was fairly low, so that sometimes the side would be flooded. Nearby was a disused woollen mill, to which the species may have at some time been imported in wool. The moss is widely distributed in South America and the West Indies. A distinctive feature of this species is its prominent excurrent nerve, which has a kink in it about three-quarters of the way up (hence flexinervis). It belongs to the section Aloma and is most closely related to the tiny annual F. exilis. Also on 3 April Dr Warburg found Archidium alternifolium,, growing at Newgale Sands, south-east of St David's.

New county records in the report below are marked by an asterisk.

4 April. The first excursion was to the hard igneous rocks of Great Treffgarne Mountain, where several members saw Lepidozia pinnata, a striking but uncommon hepatic of our western coastal districts. Also on the hillside were Odontoschisma denudatum*, Cephaloziella starkei, Leptodontium flexifolium* and Campylopus introflexus*, while on a rock face Cynodontium bruntonii was seen. In the afternoon the party went down into the nearby valley of the Western Cleddau. This was pleasantly wooded with sessile oak, birch, ash, hawthorn and hazel. Here Porella pinnata* was found on the rocks in the river, and Fissidens monguilloni*, new to Wales, was by it. Other plants of interest seen were Fissidens curnowii, Grimmia alpicola var. rivularis*, Mnium seligeri, Heterocladium heteropterum var. flaccidum, Hygroamblystegium fluviatile, and Plagiothecium succulentum among rocks in the wood. On the trees by the river various members detected Orthotrichum rivulare*, O. lyellii with abundant fruit, and Lejeunea lamacerina var. azorica*. In addition, neighbouring walls yielded Orthotrichum cupulatum* and Bryum murale, and Pohlia annotina var. decipiens* was found on the ground. Mr Sowter recorded Chiloscyphus polyanthos var. rivularis* in Picton Park.

5 April. The party's first destination was a low-lying marshy wood at Trewellwell, near St David's. In this area Dr Warburg recorded Lejeunea lamacerina var. azorica, Weissia crispata, Rhodobryum roseum, Orthotrichum pulchellum* and Plagiothecium succulentum. Farther south, near Solva, where a stream cuts through a steep-sided valley, some interesting records that members made included Metzgeria fruticulosa, Lunularia with antheridia, Porella pinnata, Marchesinia mackaii, Cololejeunea minutissima, Campylopus introflexus and Grimmia stirtonii. Members then went down to the coast of Whitesand Bay, by St David's Head, for lunch. Igneous rocks and hard acidic shale composed the cliffs and shore boulders. On soil among the cliffs Mr Lewis detected Riccia beyrichiana, while various members saw Desmatodon convolutus and Pottia crinita; Mr Crundwell noted Eurhynchium megapolitanum on an earth-capped wall and Pottia recta in a stubble field. On top of the cliffs, under blackthorn bushes, Mr Norkett found Fissidens incurvus var. tamarindifolius*, and makes the following comment on it: 'Potier de la Varde has pointed out that the tamarindifolius forms of various small Fissidens are simply growth forms except in this case, where the male plants are situated on small branches at the base of sterile stems, which are elongated and bear unbordered leaves.' Miss Duncan recorded Bryum alpinum var. viride on a small hill near by.

The Annual General Meeting was held in the evening, and members decided to hold a spring meeting in the region of the Mendips in 1959.

6 April. A small wooded valley by Walwyn's Castle, south of Haverfordwest, now provided some interesting ground on the Old Red Sandstone. On his way here from north of Haverfordwest Mr Norkett detected F. rufulus*,, at Barris Hill, also on Old Red Sandstone, growing on outcrops of rock in the bed of a rushing stream. At Walwyn's Castle the several species of Orthotrichum noted included O. pulchellum, O. striatum and O. tenellum, while Ulota phyllantha was abundant on the trees in the valley; Mr Crundwell noted Epipterygium tozeri in the bank of a lane, and Neckera pumila,, on a willow. When the attentions of some lichenologists could be distracted from a public building they were attacking with chisels, the members moved off after lunch towards the coast at Monk Haven. On the way they paused at Capeston Bridge, near which Mr Norkett detected Fissidens algarvicus* and F. bambergeri*. He finds from examining the records that these two appear to be confined almost exclusively to the Old Red Sandstone formation in this country. Other mosses found here included Cinclidotus fontinaloides, Aloina aloides and Tortula muralis var. rupestris. Monk Haven was a sheltered wooded inlet by the sea, with cliffs of Old Red Sandstone, and here members recorded Fissidens viridulus, Grimmia subsquarrosa, Pottia crinita, Weissia crispata and Funaria fascicularis.

7 April. The morning was spent at Saundersfoot, on the south coast of Pembrokeshire, where oak woodland covered a shaley hillside that ended in low cliffs by the shore. Trichostomum crispulum and Fissidens curnowii were noted. The pace hotted up in the afternoon, when the party moved on to the carboniferous limestone at Lydstep, a few miles westward along the coast. Here Dr Warburg recorded Bryum canariense var. provinciale*, new to Wales, as well as Funaria muehlenbergii, Barbula convoluta var. commutata, and, at nearby, Manorbier, Barbula hornschuchiana*, At the latter place he also noted Bryum pendulum and Eurhynchium megapolitanum. Mrs Paton and Mr Crundwell found Leptodon smithii on elders at the top of Lydstep cliffs, while on the ground among the limestone various members found Pleurochaete squarrosa and a moss that is thought to be a form of Pottia starkeana.

8 April. In low mist the party investigated the slopes of Mynydd Prescelly, where granite boulders outcropped from open moorland, and mountain streams rushed down. On the hillside several members saw Dicranella squarrosa in fruit. Dr Warburg recorded Thuidium delicatulum*, and Mrs Paton Lophozia incisa*, Cephalozia connivens*, and Lepidozia setacea*. Fissidens curnowii was again reported, and so were Pohlia annotina var. decipiens, Funaria attenuata, Plagiothecium succulentum and Riccardia sinuata. After lunch at the foot of Mynydd Prescelly the party went northwards to the sheltered wooded valley of Cwm Gwaun, near Fishguard. This resulted in another hepatic being added to the county list, Jubula hutchinsiae*, growing on rocks in the stream. Also found there were Porella pinnata, Fissidens rufulus, Diphyscium foliosum, Hygroamblystegium fluviatile and Plagiothecium succulentum.

9 April. Some members returned on this day, but one of the survivors, Dr Warburg, added more bryophytes to the county list from the region of Pembroke - Amblystegium serpens var. salinum* at Broomhill Burrows and Porella cordeana* near the Lily Pools, Bosherston. At the first he also recorded Barbula acuta, Pleurochaete squarrosa, Brachythecium mildeanum and Bryum alpinum. Two plants of uncommon interest at Bosherston were Fossombronia caespitiformis and Scorpiurum circinatum. There, too, were Fissidens incurvus and F. viridulus, while Desmatodon convolutus was again recorded, this time at St Govan's Head. Miss Duncan went to Mathry, south-west of Fishguard, and found Orthotrichum tenellum on a willow and Funaria fascicularis on bare soil in a meadow.

This exceptionally interesting meeting enabled a number of members to find plants they had not seen before and to add about a score to the county list. The Society's thanks go to Mr A. E. Wade for organizing the excursions so skilfully and attending to the many details needed to make such a meeting run smoothly. Finally, several members sent me details of the species they recorded, and I am most grateful to them for doing so.


Autumn Meeting 1958, Barnard Castle, 13-20 September

An autumn meeting was held in Barnard Castle, Co. Durham, from 13 to 20 September, with the object of visiting the northern Pennine dales and refinding some of the rarer species which were recorded by Richard Spruce in Teesdale over a century ago. Although numbers fluctuated, about twenty members were able to be present for at least part of the week.

On 14 September, a windy but dry day was spent on Widdy Bank (V.C. 66) in upper Teesdale. After a brief examination of springs near Cow Green Mine, the party dispersed into small groups. Amblyodon dealbatus, Catascopium nigritum, Cinclidium stygium, Meesia uliginosa and Leiocolea muelleri were seen around large hummocks of Gymnostomum recurvirostrum and tufts of Carex lepidocarpa and Kobresia in the gravelly flushes fed by calcareous springs which are famous as the only British habitat of Minuartia stricta. Pellia neesiana* was found in cushions of Philonotis by one of the springs. The dry outcrops of 'sugar-limestone', also famous for rare phanerogams, produced large patches of Rhytidium rugosum growing with Entodon orthocarpus, Thuidium philiberti* and Scapania aspera in the closed turf. Bryum inclinatum and Tortella tortuosa var. rigida occurred on the bare calcite sand.

[* = New v.c. record]

Several members examined the relatively undamaged patches of blanket-bog which survive on the flat top of Widdy Bank, and were rewarded with several hummocks of both Sphagnum fuscum and S. imbricatum, as well as at least six other species of Sphagnum, Cephalozia connivens, C. loitlesbergeri*, Cladopodiella fluitans, Odontoschisma sphagni, O. denudatum and Sphenolobus minutus; the last growing in tall hummocks of Leucobryum. Although many people avidly collected Splachnum sphaericum, one large patch of Haplodon wormskjoldii was discovered on decaying animal remains in a wet peat hagg probably close to where the species was originally found at the beginning of this century. Campylopus flexuosus var. uliginosus* grew nearby, and it seems possible that the old record for C. setifolius may, in fact, refer to this plant. Solenostoma atrovirens var. sphaerocarpoidea* occurred on a track.

The dolerite cliffs of Falcon Clints had been dried by the wind and were disappointing. The rock surfaces carry a drab covering of Rhacomitrium hererostichum, Andreaea rothii, A. rupestris and lichens, while Rhabdoweissia fugax, R. denticulata, Seligeria recurvata, S. trifaria*, Grimmia funalis, G. torquata, Encalypta ciliata, E. rhabdocarpa, Trichostomum crispulum var. nigroviride* and Anomobryum concinnatum* grow in crevices. Lophozia longidens* (new to England) was discovered on junipers below the cliffs where Brachydontium trichodes and Pohlia annotina var. decipiens were noted on boulders by the Tees.

The second day, 15 September, was devoted to examining the deep limestone gorge of the Swale at Kisdon (V.C. 65). Here boulders in the ash woods on the north-facing side of the gorge are covered with a luxuriant growth of Neckera crispa, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, Camptothecium lutescens, Plagiochila asplenioides and more locally cushions of Plagiopus oederi and patches of Hylocomium brevirostre and Plagiochila spinulosa. Close to the river the shaded limestone scars produced numerous liverworts; Metzgeria pubescens, Solenostoma atrovirens, S. pumilum, S. sphaerocarpum, Pedinophyllum interruptum, Leiocolea badensis, L. muelleri and Cololejeunea calcarea were among those recorded. Seligeria trifaria and S. pusilla were seen in abundance on dripping vertical rock surfaces encrusted with blue-green algae.

On 16 September Miss Lobley and Mr and Mrs Fitzgerald conducted a most rewarding excursion through Weardale and Allendale. The first stop was made at the abandoned Greenfields quarry and lead-workings in Weardale (V.C. 66). Here Barbula hornschuchiana* was collected on a wall-top, Scapania aspera was seen in the turf, Seligeria doniana on moist limestone rocks and Cephaloziella hampeana* on decaying tufts of Festuca on a lead-contaminated spoil-heap.

The party then moved on to the Sipton Burn (V.C. 67) where members were shown Tetraphis browniana growing upside-down under overhanging flagstones and Diphyscium foliosum on earthy ledges. Moerckia flotowiana* was discovered on mossy tufa associated with Orthothecium intricatum, where lime-rich water dribbled down the cliff, and Discelium nudum was abundant on clayey banks of the burn near the road. Bryum pallescens* was on the spoil-tip of an old lead mine. The third stop was in the beautiful wooded valley of the Allen at Staward (V.C. 67). Members were shown Lophozia obtusa which grows in thin turf on stabilized sand beside the river. Scapania subalpina occurred in the more open sandy shingle close by. On a low sandstone cliff Blasia pusilla, Plectocolea obovata, Blindia acuta, Eucladium verticillatum, Gyroweissia tenuis, and Pohlia annotina var. decipiens were collected. Not content with providing so successful an excursion Mrs Fitzgerald then entertained the party to an excellent tea at her home in Hexham.

On 17 September the absence of an organized excursion allowed members to follow their own devices. Exploration of the Maize Beck (V.C. 69) brought the discovery of Grimmia homodictyon* and G. trichodon*, both new to England, and Tortula subulata var. graeffi*. Cephaloziella hampeana* and Oedipodium griffithianum were seen in High Cup Nick (V.C. 69). A visit to Little Fell (V.C. 69) yielded Splachnum vasculosum* which was growing in flushes associated with Cinclidium stygium, Oncophorus virens and Leiocolea bantriensis; these last three were also seen on Great Dun Fell.

The 18 September, a cold windy day, was spent on Cronkley Fell (V.C. 65). Grimmia alpicola was seen in small quantity at White Force and Cinclidium in springs near Thistle Green but wind and mist drove the party to lower altitudes for the afternoon. Lophozia longidens* was found on junipers, and Ulota drummondii on a birch at Bleabeck Force which looked a suitable habitat for Hygrobiella, but the soggy black cushions on the spray-covered rocks all proved to be Ephebe lanata. Those members who descended the steep Yorkshire side of High Force searched for Homomallium incurvatum in Spruce's old locality but without success. Plagiochila spinulosa and Neckera pumila grew in the moist woods on the Yorkshire bank, Hygrohypnum eugyrium on boulders below the Fall, Orthotrichum rupestre was noted on the twigs of a tree, and Philonotis fontana var. tomentella* in a rock-crevice.

On 19 September a small party set off to Ingleby Greenhow to visit Mielichhoferia elongata on the cliffs of Liassic shale but the cold and heavy rain discouraged all but the most stalwart from achieving their object.

Other excursions made by various members during the week resulted in several further interesting discoveries. Tortula pulvinata* (new to the British Isles) was discovered near Eglestone (V.C.65) during an unsuccessful search for Orthotrichum obtusifolium. Independent excursions in Teesdale produced a Barbilophozia atlantica*, B. hatcheri*, Lophozia bicrenata* and Tritomaria exsectiformis on rocks near Dineholm Scar (V.C. 65), Lophozia longidens and Marsupella ustulata* on Cronkley Scar (V.C. 65) and Grimmia alpicola* by the River Tees at Stortforth (V.C. 65) opposite Barnard Castle.


Annual Meeting 1959, Wells, 2-8 April

The Spring Meeting this year was held at Wells, Somerset, from 2 to 8 April, with the intention of working the Mendips and the neighbouring region. It was attended by between thirty and forty members, and opened with an informal meeting at the Headquarters, the Star Hotel, Wells. At this meeting it was learnt that the organizer of the excursions, Mr Peter Hunt, would be unable to be present as he had just taken up a post at Kew. Mrs Paton, however, reported that he had given her all the necessary information, and had also made arrangements with a local acquaintance, Miss E. Overend of Frome, who would give all possible help.

Friday, 3 April. In the morning the Society visited Whitesheet Hill near Maiden Bradley. The area is mainly chalk grassland with an old chalk-pit which has been recolonized. After the boundary between V.C. 6 and V.C. 8 had been pointed out the party split into small groups, working as far as possible in V.C. 6. Acrocladium cuspidatum, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus and several species of Barbula (B. rigidula, B. fallax and B. hornschuchiana) were found, as well as other mosses usual in such a habitat. Weissia crispata was found in the old chalk-pit and also a few hepatics such as Leiocolea turbinata and Metzgeria fruticulosa. The most interesting find, however, was Seligeria calcarea (new to V.C. 6) on stones in the turf.

After lunch the party moved to Alfred's Tower to visit woods on acid soil on the Greensand escarpment. Again most of the work was in V.C. 6 but a few members strayed into V.C. 8 and established a new record for that vice county by finding Orthodontium lineare* well established on rotting branches. In the woods in V.C. 6 the dominant moss was Mnium hornum, but others seen included Bryum capillare, B. caespiticium and Tetraphis pellucida. A stunted form of Bryum pallens was also found in the rides. A noteworthy hepatic was Lejeunea ulicina on the trees, while Fossombronia pusilla and Riccardia sinuata were also found.

[* = New v.c. record]

Saturday, 4 April. The Society was due to visit Ebbor Gorge (under the leadership of Dr F. Rose) and Rodney Stoke Nature Reserve. The latter, however, was reported to be overgrown with brambles and it was decided to spend the whole day at the Gorge, a thickly wooded ravine on Carboniferous Limestone. The success of the day's trip fully justified this decision as many noteworthy finds were made. Fruiting specimens of Orthotrichum lyellii were found on an ash trunk near the Gorge. The limestone rocks of the Gorge provided interesting material. Weissia crispata, Grimmia orbicularis, Funaria muehlenbergii, Isothecium striatulum (, Bryum canariense var. provinciale, B. pallens and Riccia sorocarpa were found on exposed rocks and ledges, while Gymnostomum calcareum and Plagiothecium succulentum were found in the shade. Other mosses found in the Gorge included Mnium stellare, M. cuspidatum, Scorpiurum circinatum, Eurynchium striatum, Isothecium myosuroides, Tortella tortuosa, T. nitida (in the crevices of the limestone chips), Grimmia pulvinata (on the limestone chips), Tortula subulata, Fissidens bryoides, F. adianthoides, Homalia trichomanoides (, Anomodon viticulosus, Rhynchostegiella pallidirostra, R. tenella, R. teesdalei, Eurynchium megapolitanum, Campylium protensum, C. chrysophyllum, Trichostomum sinuosum, T. crispulum, Dicranum fuscescens, and Cirriphyllum crassinervium. Among the hepatics found were Reboulia hemisphaerica, Riccia sorocorpa, Metzgeria conjugata, Porella laevigata, Marchesinia mackaii, Cololejeunea rossettiana, Lophozia bicrenata, Scapania aspera, and Nowellia recurvifolia*, while in the thin turf in the rough pasture above the Gorge there was Cepholoziella stellulifera, a decidedly rare hepatic with a south-western distribution. Specimens of Weissia controversa, Funaria fascicularis and Pleuridium acuminatum were also found in these fields. Some members also visited Wookey where they found Tortula laevipila, Zygodon viridissimus and Brachythecium velutinum.

In the evening the Annual General Meeting was held in the Star Hotel, Wells.

Sunday, 5 April, a trip was made to the Eastern Mendips. In the morning the area worked was Shepton Forest and the neighbouring Downhead Common (grassy heath and bog on Old Red Sandstone). Several species of Sphagnum were found on the boggy ground, including S. palustre, S. recurvum, S. subsecundum var. inundatum* and S. subsecundum var. auriculatum. Associated with this damp ground and the neighbouring stream were Polytrichum commune, Amblystegium filicinum (on stones in the stream), Eurynchium riparioides, Pseudoscleropodium purum, Hygroamblystegium tenax. On neighbouring roots of trees Cryphaea heteromalla and Amblystegium juratzkanum were found, while the hepatic Ptilidium pulcherrimum* was on the damp tree trunks. Other species found on trees included Hypnum cupressiforme var. filiforme, Dicranoweissia cirrata, Ulota crispa, Metzgeria fruticulosa, Lejeunea ulicina and Lophocolea heterophylla. In the litter among the tall bracken Plagiothecium denticulatum was found. Another new record was P. succulentum.

A nearby disused Silurian andesite quarry was also visited. Hedwigia ciliata*, Rhacomitrium aquaticum*, R. heterostichum*, Grimmia trichophylla, and Tortula subulata were found on the rocks and Polytrichum urnigerum on the floor of the quarry.

After lunch the party proceeded to Asham Wood, the largest ash wood on the Mendips. Ulota crispa and Orthotrichum affine were abundant on the trees and other mosses found included Ulota phyllantha*, Neckera pumila, Cryphaea heteromalla, Hookeria lucens, Orthotrichum lyellii, O. striatum, O. pulchellum*, Hylocomium brevirostre, Rhodobryum roseum (on damp Soil), Plagiothecium latebricola (on old hazel stools), Mnium undulatum, M. stellatum, Isothecium myurum, Cirriphyllum piliferum, Eurynchium praelongum and Homalia trichomanoides. Among the Liverworts found were Riccia sorocarpa, Fossombronia pusilla, Lejeunea ulicina, Radula complanata, Metzgeria fruticulosa, Riccardia pinguis, Calypogeia muelleriana, Trichocolea tomentella, and Chiloscyphus polyanthos var. rivularis. It was noticed during the afternoon that the Ulota crispa on the lower branches and trunks of trees was dead or in very poor condition, while the Orthotrichum affine in the same position was flourishing.

Monday, 6 April. The Society turned its attention to the western extension of the Mendips and visited Brean Down (Carboniferous Limestone). Among the hepatics were Riccia sorocarpa, Riccardia sinuata and Frullania tamarisci. In the limestone turf the following mosses were seen: Tortella flavovirens, T. nitida, Tortula intermedia, T. muralis, Encalypta vulgaris, Grimmia pulvinata, G. apocarpa, Zygodon stirtoni, Aloina aloides, A. ambigua, Pottia lanceolata, Pleurochaete squarrosa, Weissia crispa, Funaria muehlenbergii, Orthotrichum cupulatum. After lunch the party moved to Berrow Dunes, near the coast. Unfortunately the high wind made things very difficult on the sand, but the following mosses were found; Tortula ruraliformis, Tortella flavovirens, Bryum inclinatum and Brachythecium albicans.

Leaving the coast, the party travelled inland to Shapwick Heath, a peat bog which is still being worked for agricultural peat. Sphagnum papillosum could be seen in the cut peat, and other species found were S. plumulosum and S. palustre. Interesting mosses included Aulacomnium androgynum (in fruit), and Orthodontium lineare* (both on peaty banks), Campylopus fragilis, C. introflexus*, Brachythecium salebrosum, Climacium dendroides and Tetraphis pellucida. Among the liverworts were Chiloscyphus pallescens, Ricciocarpus natans and Calypogeia fissa. There was also an interesting plant of Cephalozia pleniceps which seems to be var. macrantha although this has been deleted from the new Annotated List.

In the evening several members visited Wells Museum, by kind invitation of the Curator, and spent a pleasant hour studying the exhibits.

Tuesday, 7 April. This was the last day of the meeting for most members present. The party travelled northwards to Burrington Combe where a variety of habitats was found. On the exposed rocks on the Carboniferous Limestone slopes were found Grimmia orbicularis and Bryum canariense var. provinciale (, while in the turf there were Breutelia chrysocoma, Trichostomum brachydontium (, Anomodon viticulosus, Pseudoscleropodium purum, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, and Hylocomium splendens. In the stream and on the neighbouring rocks and damp ground were Rhynchostegiella teesdalei, Bryum pallens, Philonotis fontana, Gymnostomum calcareum, Eurynchium riparioides and Pellia epiphylla. On the acid heath above the limestone slopes were found Barbula fallax, B. convoluta, Pohlia nutans, Philonotis capillaris*, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. nanum and Pleuridium acuminatum. Hepatics included Lophocolea bidentata, Diplophyllum albicans, Nardia scalaris, Saccogyna viticulosa and Cephaloziella rubella*. On damp ground near the streams on the Old Red Sandstone there were Dichodontium pellucidum, Heterocladium heteropterum var. fallax and Cephaloziella stelullifera (it is interesting to note that this rare hepatic was found twice during the meeting).

After lunch Goblin Combe was visited. This is a wooded limestone valley. Mosses found included Rhodobryum roseum on the damp soil, Barbula trifaria, Hylocomium brevirostre and an abundant growth of Thamnium alopecurum, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus and Thuidium tamariscinum. On the limestone rocks there were Isothecium striatulum ( and Gymnostomum calcareum. The hepatics included Frullania tamarisci, Plagiochila asplenioides var. major, Scapania gracilis, Porella platyphylla and Marchesinia mackaii. Some members later went on to Walton-in-Gordano where Bryum canariense var. provinciale was seen on the limestone rocks and Ceratodon chloropus in the turf, together with Funaria fascicularis.

Wednesday, 8 April. The few remaining members visited the Cheddar Gorge. Species seen included Eucladium verticillatum, Isopterygium pulchellum, Gymnostomum calcareum, Fissidens viridulus and Bryum canariense var. provinciale; the last two were locally abundant. Hepatics included Reboulia hemisphaerica, Marchesinia mackaii and Cololejeunea rossettiana.

In conclusion, it remains to thank all who contributed to the success of this meeting; Mr Peter Hunt for the highly efficient organization, Mrs Paton for acting as leader in the absence of Mr Hunt, Miss Overend for so willingly placing her local knowledge at the disposal of the Society and all those members who allowed their cars to be used for the excursions. Finally the writer would like to thank all members who sent him copies of their lists.

Autumn Meeting 1959, Cockermouth, 29 August-5 September

The autumn meeting of the Society was held at Cockermouth in Cumberland from 29 August to 5 September and was attended by eleven members.

The first excursion, on Sunday, 30 August, was to Shoulthwaite Gill, a calcareous rocky stream with small waterfalls and gorges. In the immediate vicinity of the streams several interesting species were found including Hygrobiella laxifolia, Plagiochila tridenticulata, Scapania subalpina, Radula lindbergiana, Cololejeunea calcarea, Aphanolejeunea microscopica, Sphagnum contortum, S. girgensohnii, S. warnstorfianum, S. russowii, Barbula ferruginascens, Leptodontium flexifolium, Grimmia torquata, G. patens, Bartramia halleriana, Orthothecium intricatum and Ptilium crista-castrensis. A few members made towards the peat moorland of High Seat above the Gill, but the ground was so dry that little was found. Before returning to Cockermouth a quick visit was made to Raise Beck just over the border in Westmorland where Hygrobiella laxifolia and Hygrohypnum dilatatum were seen.

Monday was spent on the precipitous north face of the Hay Stacks, southeast of Buttermere and on ground above Honister Crags. A stream on the Hay Stacks proved very fruitful and produced Metzgeria hamata, Herberta hutchinsiae, Hygrobiella laxifolia, Eremonotus myriocarpus*, Marsupella funckii, M. stableri, Plagiochila tridenticulata, Cephaloziella pearsonii, Radula aquilegia, Lejeunea lamacerina var. azorica*, Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia, Harpalejeunea ovata, Colura calyptrifolia, Frullania germana, F. microphylla, Arctoa fulvella, Dicranum blyttii (Honister), Campylopus schwarzii, C. setifolius, Barbula ferruginascens, Rhacomitrium ellipticum, Oedipodium griffithianum, Hygrohypnum dilatatum, Hypnum hamulosum and H. callichroum.

The morning of the third day was spent in the limestone valley of Parkend Beck to the west of Caldbeck where Fissidens rufulus was found. Ephemerum serratum var. minutissimum* was seen in an arable field between Caldbeck and Howk. Part of the afternoon was spent downstream to the west of Caldbeck where Metzgeria pubescens, Fissidens rufulus and Isopterygium depressum were seen. Scapania irrigua and Dicranella varia were found on the track leading to the stream. On the way to Cockermouth a detour was made to a bog near Greystoke to see Drepanocladus vernicosus, and Mnium pseudopunctatum and Acrocladium giganteum were also noted.

On Wednesday morning a visit was made to Classon Moss in north Cumberland. Warnings about the necessity of waterproof footwear were found to be quite unfounded, the bog being very dry, although the bryophytes were still in a good state. The edge of the bog had been spoilt by peat cuttings, but in the untampered parts there were seen Odontochisma denudatum*, Cladopodiella fluitans, Sphagnum pulchrum, S. fuscum and Dicranum bergeri, and after diligent searching Calypogeia sphagnicola was found to be abundant. After lunch members made their way to an attractive sandstone gorge near Brampton which had not been seriously bryologized in recent years. In the gorge itself the most interesting find was Fissidens exiguus*, together with Leiocolea bantriensis, Solenostoma atrovirens var. sphaerocarpoidea. Cololejeunea rossettiana, Fissidens pusillus and F. rufulus, and large quantities of Tetraphis browniana and Gyroweissia tenuis fruiting upside down under shaded ledges. Above the gorge on soil-capped ledges of the Written Rock of Gelt Amblystegiella sprucei and Mnium stellare were seen with what was perhaps the most interesting hepatic find of the week, Lepidozia sylvatica*.

Thursday was a day of short visits, the first being to a beck on the north-west side of High Snockrigg near Buttermere. Here were found a large assortment of Marsupellas, most of which turned out to be M. emarginata with a few patches of M. aquatica. There was considerable quantity of Cephaloziella pearsonii, together with Cynodontium jenneri, Solenostoma sphaerocarpum and Douinia ovata. The next visit was to Scales Wood and Burtness Wood above Buttermere. In the former Riccardia palmata*, Lophozia ventricosa var. silvicola* and Tritomaria exsecta were seen, and in the latter Barbilophozia atlantica. Members then moved on to Borrowdale Yews; this wood is situated in what is reputed to be the wettest part of the British Isles, but everything was parched and there was much difficulty in identifying various liverworts that were the cause of the visit. Despite the arid conditions Plagiochila tridenticulata, Adelanthus decipiens, Radula lindbergiana, Lejeunea patens*, Harpalejeunea ovata and Bartramia halleriana were seen.

The last day was spent in Glencoynedale, Westmorland, in the hope of finding Barbula icmadophila which is recorded from there, but without success. However, after a very long hot climb the following plants of interest were found, Hygrobiella laxifolia, Marsupella funkii, Cephaloziella hampeana*, C. starkei, Encalypta ciliata, Barbula ferruginascens, Coscinodon cribrosus, Grimmia funalis, G. torquata and Funaria attenuata. In Glencoyne Wood Sphenolobus hellerianus, Lejeunea ulicina, L. lamacerina and Bartramia halleriana were noted.

On two evening excursions to the south-west end of Bassenthwaite Water Mnium cinclidioides on the shores of the lake and Coscinodon cribrosus on a nearby wall were seen. Two members spent an extra day in Borrowdale, and the following additional species of interest were seen, Marchesinia mackaii, Lejeunea lamacerina*, Jubula hutchinsae, Campylopus subulatus, Orthotrichum striatum, Plagiothecium roeseanum and Sematophyllum novae-caesareae.

Despite the exceptionally fine dry weather all members present were rewarded with finds of species that they had not seen before, but not many new county records were made as the county has already been well worked. Thanks are due to Dr D. A. Ratcliffe whose knowledge of the district was an invaluable help, and to Mrs J. A. Paton upon whom the burden of organizing the excursion fell, and who carried out this task most successfully.


Symposium Meeting 1959, Birmingham, 7-8 November

A meeting organized by Mr S. W. Greene was held during the weekend of 7 and 8 November, 1959, in the Botany Department of the University of Birmingham (by kind permission of Dr C. J. Hickman). Apologies for absence were received from the President and from the Secretary. Prof. D. G. Catcheside took the chair on the Saturday, when the following papers were read:

Dr D. H. DALBY: 'Pores and fibrils in Sphagnum and their value to the taxonomist'.
The wide range of pore and fibril forms seen in the leaf and stem cells was demonstrated by photomicrographs made from stained material. These included a series explaining Russow's classification of pore types in the leaf cells. Environmental modification of the normal pattern was seen in S. imbricatum, S. cuspidatum and S. subsecundum var. rufescens. The paper concluded with reference to leaf ontogeny in S. palustre, emphasizing the need for developmental and physiological studies for the elucidation of the variation seen in the pore and fibril patterns.

Mr S. W. GREENE: 'Problems of fruiting behaviour in mosses'. See B.B.S. Trans. 3, pt. 5, p. 736.

Dr E. V. WATSON: 'Studies in the Bryophytes of Chalk Grassland'.
Dr Watson gave an account of some quantitative work that he had done on Nature Reserves in Sussex, Hampshire, Oxfordshire, Dorset and Kent. Point contact 'frames' and abundance estimates in 20 cm. squares were employed at regularly spaced sampling sites along Nature Conservancy permanent transect lines which could be revisited at a future time. These methods confirmed Pseudoscleropodium purum as the outstandingly abundant species in chalk grassland and revealed, among other things, interesting contrasts between north-facing and south-facing slopes. Rhytidiadelphus species were confined to the former; Camptothecium lutescens was much more abundant on the latter type of slope.

Dr H. L. R. WHITEHOUSE, and Dr D. E. COOMBE: 'A new species of Tortula from Cornwall'.
In March 1958 a species of Tortula, apparently allied to T. marginata (Bry. Eur.) Spruce, was found at the Lizard, Cornwall. It differs from that species in occurring on the ground and in having shorter, broader leaves with a shorter apiculus and with marginal teeth near the leaf-apex. Archegonia have been found, but no antheridia or sporophytes. The plant is a winter annual at the Lizard, possibly surviving the summer as rounded protonemal cells.

Dr F. Rose was unable to read his paper.

After dinner a conversazione was held in the Botany Department where the following exhibits were laid out: 'Stages in the Maturity Cycle, as illustrated by Mnium hornum', (S. W. Greene); 'Polysety in Polytrichum commune', (W. S. Lacey); 'Progress in the revision of the Warwickshire Bryophyte Flora' (T. Laflin); 'Paludella squarrosa, a specimen from Boreal-Atlantic Transition Peat Deposit (R. E. Longton); 'Studies in Polytrichum formosum' (P. J. Wanstall); 'Ecological work on Bryophytes of Chalk Grassland' (E. V. Watson); 'A new species of Tortula from Cornwall' (H. L. R. Whitehouse).

On Sunday a very pleasant day was spent in the Wyre Forest, a large area of Quercus petraea oakwood and planted soft woods on Upper Coal Measure Sandstone. Three areas in Worcestershire, V.C. 37, were visited. First, at the eastern end of the Forest near Dowles Manor House where fine Rhodobryum roseum was shown to the party. Secondly, the Forestry Commission area in the southern part of the forest, near the Service Tree (Sorbus domestica), where woodland rides were explored. Species seen included Riccia sorocarpa, Fossombronia wondraczekii, Cephaloziella starkei, Marsupella emarginata, Scapania irrigua, S. nemorosa, Pseudephemerum nitidum and Barbula hornschuchiana. After lunch and a beautiful drive to the north-east section, Cliff Wood, east of Pound Green was visited. Here Hypnum patientiae was found on a path. On the steep rocky banks of the stream Rhynchostegiella teesdalei, Heterocladium heteropterum Saccogyna viticulosa, Lejeunea lamacerina, and many typical oakwood plants were seen. Most of the party then returned to Bewdley for an excellent tea before returning to Birmingham for trains home.

It was unfortunate that the beginning of the meeting coincided with a bad spell of fog in the Midlands which prevented about half a dozen members from travelling to Birmingham; but in spite of the weather twenty-five members and about a dozen guests attended the meeting. Nearly twenty people visited the Wyre Forest.

Refreshments and transport during the meeting were very kindly provided by the University of Birmingham, and the success of the meeting was entirely due to Mr Greene and his wife for their excellent planning of the programme. It is hoped that other University members may be prepared to arrange similar meetings in the future.


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