RBGE Lichen Resources  


This website provides additional resources to complement RBGE's main Cryptogam and Lichen pages.

Guides to Lichens

  • If you're visiting us, you can use this Guide to explore lichens at the Edinburgh garden.
  • Or, for a journey of discovery, take part in our Lichen Safari, at either Edinburgh or Benmore.

Lichen Epiphyte Communities

  • National Vegetation Classification is an important basis in characterising and mapping plant diversity; this report provided an ecological overview of Scotland's epiphyte diversity and a preliminary test-case for systematically sampling and classifying epiphytes into community types.
  • The report identified 15 community types, with differing degrees of success. It also provided an introduction to statistical methods for identifying and recording community types.
  • A high resolution version of the report can also be downloaded.

Lichen Epiphyte Scenarios

  • This toolkit - no longer supported as web-based software - interrogated the climate change response of lichen epiphytes, and their tree species associations, for the long-term management of Scotland's forests and woodlands.
  • Scenarios of woodland succession and tree composition were explored alongside climate change effects. The method has been used by Scottish Natural Heritage to guide the management of their Glen Creran NNR, and by the Forestry Commission to manage niche availability for woodland specialist species in their Niches for Species.
  • The toolkit's Technical Report remains available and should be referred to when using the output of bioclimatic models for individual lichens, provided below.

Urban Lichen Survey and Air Pollution Indicators

  • An urban lichen survey for Edinburgh, to support individuals of all ages, and their communities, in exploring and monitoring local air quality.
  • The survey provides support in lichen identification, and suggestions for activities that can help improve Edinburgh's city environment.

Bioclimatic Models - Output Files

  • Explore species responses to projected climate change - comparing baseline with 2050s and 2080s values for climate, pollution and woodland structure - in conjunction with the Technical Report.
  • Follow the epiphyte links below, to explore each species' bioclimatic modelling results (Ellis et al. 2014, 2015).
  • Access and download the model output values (.csv format) estimating a species environmental suitability (envS), for the climatic baseline (1961-2006), the 2050s under a medium emissions scenario or the 2080s under a high emissions scenario.
  • Values are the median envS from a probabilistic 11 model ensemble, aligned with British grid references at a 10km scale.
  • To implement an analysis that considers scenarios of woodland composition, incorporate tree species preferences from the epiphyte-tree dataset, following methods described in Section 3.3 of the Technical Report.

Ellis, C.J., Eaton, S., Theodoropoulos, M., Coppins, B.J., Seaward, M.R.D. & Simkin, S. (2014) Response of epiphytic lichens to 21st Century climate change and tree disease scenarios. Biological Conservation, 180: 153-164.
Ellis, C.J., Eaton, S., Theodoropoulos, M., Coppins, B.J., Seaward, M.R.D. & Simkin, J. (2015) Lichen Epiphyte Scenarios. A Toolkit of Climate and Woodland Change for the 21st Century. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. ISBN: 978-1-91087-00-5.

Taxon names are constrained by publication date; check for nomenclatural change using the BLS Taxon Dictionary. Species legislated for protection on the Scottish Biodiversity List, are highlighted.

Acrocordia gemmata
Agonimia octospora - SBL
Agonimia tristicula
Anaptychia ciliaris subsp ciliaris - SBL
Anisomeridium biforme
Anisomeridium polypori
Anisomeridium ranunculosporum
Anisomeridium viridescens
- SBL
Arthonia anombrophila
- SBL
Arthonia arthonioides
Arthonia cinnabarina
Arthonia didyma
Arthonia elegans
Arthonia ilicina
- SBL
Arthonia leucopellaea
Arthonia muscigena
Arthonia pruinata
Arthonia punctiformis
Arthonia radiata
Arthonia spadicea
Arthonia stellaris
Arthonia vinosa
Arthopyrenia analepta
Arthopyrenia carneobrunneola
- SBL
Arthopyrenia cerasi
Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa
Arthopyrenia fraxini
Arthopyrenia nitescens
- SBL
Arthopyrenia punctiformis
Arthopyrenia salicis
Arthothelium ruanum
Bacidia absistens
Bacidia arceutina
Bacidia beckhausii
Bacidia biatorina
Bacidia caesiovirens
- SBL
Bacidia delicata
Bacidia incompta
- SBL
Bacidia laurocerasi
Bacidia phacodes
Bacidia rubella
Bacidia squamellosa
Bacidia viridifarinosa
Bactrospora corticola
Bactrospora homalotropa
- SBL
Biatora chrysantha
Biatora vernalis
Bilimbia sabuletorum
Bryoria capillaris
Bryoria fuscescens
Bryoria subcana
Buellia disciformis
Buellia erubescens
Buellia griseovirens
Buellia schaereri
Bunodophoron melanocarpum
Calicium glaucellum
Calicium salicinum
Calicium viride
Caloplaca cerina
var cerina
Caloplaca cerinella
Caloplaca citrina
sensu lato
Caloplaca ferruginea
- SBL
Caloplaca holocarpa
sensu lato
Caloplaca luteoalba - SBL
Caloplaca obscurella
Caloplaca ulcerosa
Candelaria concolor
Candelariella reflexa
Candelariella vitellina
form vitellina
Candelariella xanthostigma
Catillaria nigroclavata
Catinaria atropurpurea
Celothelium ischnobelum
Cetraria sepincola
Cetrelia olivetorum
sensu lato
Chaenotheca brachypoda
Chaenotheca brunneola
Chaenotheca chrysocephala
Chaenotheca ferruginea
Chaenotheca furfuracea
Chaenotheca hispidula
Chaenotheca trichialis
Chrysothrix candelaris
Chrysothrix flavovirens
Cladonia caespiticia
Cladonia chlorophaea
sensu lato
Cladonia coccifera sensu lato
Cladonia coniocraea
Cladonia digitata
Cladonia diversa
Cladonia fimbriata
Cladonia furcata
subsp furcata
Cladonia macilenta
Cladonia ochrochlora
Cladonia polydactyla
var polydactyla
Cladonia portentosa
Cladonia pyxidata
Cladonia ramulosa
Cladonia squamosa
sensu lato
Collema fasciculare - SBL
Collema flaccidum
Collema furfuraceum
Collema nigrescens
Collema subflaccidum
Cresponea premnea
- SBL
Cryptolechia carneolutea
Cyphelium inquinans
Cyrtidula quercus
Cystocoleus ebeneus
Degelia atlantica
Degelia plumbea
sensu lato
Dimerella lutea
Dimerella pineti
Diploicia canescens
Diplotomma alboatrum
Enterographa crassa
Enterographa sorediata
Eopyrenula grandicula
Fellhaneropsis vezdae
Flavoparmelia caperata
Flavoparmelia soredians
- SBL
Fuscidea arboricola
Fuscidea lightfootii
Fuscopannaria mediterranea
Fuscopannaria sampaiana
- SBL
Gomphillus calycioides
- SBL
Graphina anguina
Graphina ruiziana
- SBL
Graphis elegans
Graphis scripta
Gyalecta derivata
Gyalecta flotowii
Gyalecta truncigena
Gyalideopsis muscicola
- SBL
Haematomma ochroleucum
var ochroleucum
Haematomma ochroleucum var porphyrium
Halecania viridescens
Heterodermia obscurata
Hyperphyscia adglutinata
Hypocenomyce caradocensis
Hypocenomyce friesii
Hypocenomyce scalaris
Hypogymnia tubulosa
Hypotrachyna endochlora
Hypotrachyna laevigata
Hypotrachyna revoluta
sensu lato
Hypotrachyna sinuosa
Hypotrachyna taylorensis
Imshaugia aleurites
Jamesiella anastomosans
Japewia subaurifera
Japewiella tavaresiana
Lecanactis abietina
Lecanactis subabietina
- SBL
Lecania chlorotiza
- SBL
Lecania cyrtella
- SBL
Lecania cyrtellina
Lecania naegelii
Lecanographa amylacea
- SBL
Lecanographa lyncea
- SBL
Lecanora albella
- SBL
Lecanora argentata
Lecanora carpinea
Lecanora compallens
Lecanora confusa
Lecanora conizaeoides
form conizaeoides
Lecanora dispersa
Lecanora farinaria
Lecanora intumescens
Lecanora jamesii
Lecanora persimilis
Lecanora populicola
- SBL
Lecanora pulicaris
Lecanora sambuci
Lecanora symmicta
Lecidea hypopta
Lecidea nylanderi
Lecidea sanguineoatra
Lecidella scabra
Lepraria jackii
Lepraria lobificans
Lepraria membranacea
Lepraria rigidula
Lepraria umbricola
Leptogium brebissonii
- SBL
Leptogium burgessii
- SBL
Leptogium cyanescens
- SBL
Leptogium lichenoides
Leptogium teretiusculum
Leptorhaphis atomaria
Leptorhaphis epidermidis
Lichenomphalia umbellifera
Lobaria amplissima
- SBL
Lobaria pulmonaria
- SBL
Lobaria scrobiculata
- SBL
Lobaria virens
- SBL
Lopadium disciforme
Loxospora elatina
Megalaria grossa
Megalaria pulverea
Megalospora tuberculosa
- SBL
Melanelixia fuliginosa
Melanohalea elegantula
Melanohalea exasperata
Melanohalea laciniatula
Melaspilea atroides
- SBL
Melaspilea ochrothalamia
Menegazzia terebrata
- SBL
Micarea adnata
Micarea alabastrites
- SBL
Micarea cinerea
form cinerea
Micarea doliiformis
Micarea lignaria
var lignaria
Micarea melaena
Micarea micrococca
Micarea nitschkeana
Micarea peliocarpa
Micarea prasina
sensu lato
Micarea pycnidiophora - SBL
Micarea stipitata
- SBL
Micarea synotheoides
- SBL
Micarea viridileprosa
Micarea xanthonica
- SBL
Mycobilimbia epixanthoides
Mycobilimbia pilularis
Mycoblastus caesius
Mycoblastus sanguinarius
form sanguinarius
Mycomicrothelia confusa
Mycoporum antecellens
Nephroma laevigatum
- SBL
Nephroma parile
Normandina acroglypta
Normandina pulchella
Ochrolechia androgyna
Ochrolechia microstictoides
Ochrolechia parella
Ochrolechia subviridis
Ochrolechia szatalaënsis
- SBL
Ochrolechia tartarea
Ochrolechia turneri
sensu lato
Opegrapha atra
Opegrapha corticola
Opegrapha herbarum
Opegrapha multipuncta
Opegrapha niveoatra
Opegrapha ochrocheila
Opegrapha prosodea
Opegrapha rufescens
Opegrapha sorediifera
Opegrapha varia
Opegrapha vermicellifera
Opegrapha vulgata
Opegrapha xerica
Pachyphiale carneola
Pannaria conoplea
- SBL
Pannaria rubiginosa
- SBL
Parmelia omphalodes
Parmelia saxatilis
Parmeliella parvula
- SBL
Parmeliella testacea
- SBL
Parmeliella triptophylla
- SBL
Parmelina pastillifera
Parmeliopsis ambigua
Parmeliopsis hyperopta
Parmotrema crinitum
Parmotrema perlatum
Parmotrema reticulatum
Peltigera collina
- SBL
Peltigera horizontalis
Peltigera hymenina
Peltigera membranacea
Peltigera praetextata
Pertusaria albescens
var albescens
Pertusaria albescens
var corallina
Pertusaria amara
form amara
Pertusaria coccodes
Pertusaria coronata
Pertusaria flavida
Pertusaria hemisphaerica
Pertusaria hymenea
Pertusaria leioplaca
Pertusaria multipuncta
Pertusaria ophthalmiza
- SBL
Pertusaria pertusa
Pertusaria pupillaris
Phaeographis dendritica
- SBL
Phaeographis inusta
Phaeographis lyellii
Phaeographis smithii
Phaeophyscia orbicularis
Phlyctis agelaea
Phlyctis argena
Phyllopsora rosei
Physcia aipolia
Physcia caesia
Physcia leptalea
Physcia stellaris
Physcia tribacia
Physcia tribacioides
Physconia distorta
Physconia enteroxantha
Physconia grisea
Physconia perisidiosa
Piccolia ochrophora
Placynthiella icmalea
Platismatia glauca
Platismatia norvegica
- SBL
Pleurosticta acetabulum
Polychidium muscicola
Porina aenea
Porina borreri
Porina coralloidea
- SBL
Porina hibernica
Porina leptalea
Protopannaria pezizoides
Protoparmelia ochrococca
Pseudevernia furfuracea
sensu lato
Pseudocyphellaria crocata - SBL
Pseudocyphellaria intricata
- SBL
Pseudocyphellaria norvegica
- SBL
Punctelia borreri
- SBL
Punctelia jeckeri
Punctelia reddenda
Punctelia subrudecta
sensu lato
Pyrenula chlorospila
Pyrenula laevigata
- SBL
Pyrenula macrospora
Pyrenula occidentalis
- SBL
Pyrrhospora quernea
Ramalina calicaris
Ramalina canariensis
Ramalina fastigiata
Ramalina fraxinea
- SBL
Ramonia chrysophaea
- SBL
Rinodina efflorescens
Rinodina roboris
var roboris - SBL
Rinodina sophodes
Ropalospora viridis
Schismatomma cretaceum
- SBL
Schismatomma decolorans
Schismatomma niveum
- SBL
Schismatomma quercicola
- SBL
Scoliciosporum chlorococcum
Scoliciosporum pruinosum
Scoliciosporum umbrinum
Sphaerophorus globosus
Stenocybe pullatula
Stenocybe septata
Sticta canariensis dufourii
- SBL
Sticta fuliginosa
- SBL
Sticta limbata
- SBL
Sticta sylvatica
- SBL
Strigula taylorii
Tephromela atra
var atra
Tephromela atra
var torulosa
Thelenella muscorum
var muscorum
Thelopsis rubella
Thelotrema lepadinum
Thelotrema macrosporum
- SBL
Thelotrema petractoides
- SBL
Tomasellia gelatinosa
Trapelia corticola
Trapeliopsis flexuosa
Trapeliopsis granulosa
Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa
Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
Usnea articulata
Usnea ceratina
- SBL
Usnea cornuta
Usnea dasypoga
Usnea flammea
Usnea florida
Usnea fragilescens
var mollis
Usnea hirta
Usnea rubicunda
Usnea subfloridana
Usnea wasmuthii
Violella fucata
Wadeana dendrographa
- SBL
Xanthoria candelaria
sensu lato
Xanthoria ucrainica