Loxogramme avenia (Blume) C.Presl




Loxogramme avenia (Blume) C.Presl, Tent. Pterid.: 215. 1836; Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India: 393, f. 229. 1883; Tardieu & C.Chr., Fl. Indo-Chine 7(2): 465. 1941; Holttum, Rev. Fl. Malaya ed. 1, 2: 167, f. 76. 1955 [‘1954’]; Tagawa & K.Iwats., SouthE. Asian Stud. 5: 56. 1967; Tagawa & K.Iwats., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 23: 53. 1968; Tagawa & K.Iwats., Fl. Thailand 3: 576. 1989; Boonkerd & Pollawatn, Pterid. Thailand: 277. 2000; Jaman, Fl. Pen. Malaysia, Ser. I, Ferns & Lycoph. 1: 124. 2010. – Grammitis avenia Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae: 117. 1828. – Type: Blume s.n., Java (L).

Loxogramme blumeana C.Presl, Tent. Pterid.: 215. 1836.

Loxogramme involuta auct. non (D.Don) C.Presl: Holttum, Dansk Bot. Ark. 23: 230. 1965.


Rhizome short creeping, more than 3 mm diam., bearing closely spaced fronds, densely covered with scales near apex; scales dark brown, hardly clathrate, linear-lanceolate, narrowing towards hair-pointed apex, about 10 by 1.2 mm, entire. Stipes indistinct, dark castaneous, densely scaly at base. Laminae lanceolate, acuminate at apex, broadest at middle to upper 1/3, gradually narrowing downwards and decurrent at base to form wings, 50 by 1.5–6 cm, edges entire or a little recurved, green on upper surface, paler beneath; midrib distinctly raised on upper surface, hardly so beneath, pale green to brown; veins hardly visible on both. surfaces, forming copious anastomosis; thick, leathery, fleshy. Sori linear, oblique, continuous from near midrib to the margin of laminae, forming angles of 20°–35° to midribs, up to 6 cm by about 2 mm, a little immersed .

Distribution in Thailand

SOUTH-WESTERN: Prachuap Khiri Khan; CENTRAL: Nakhon Nayok; SOUTH-EASTERN: Chanthaburi, Trat; PENINSULAR: Chumphon, Phangnga, Trang, Satun, Yala, Narathiwat.

Distribution in Cambodia

Kompong Speu, Pursat

Wider Distribution

Burma, Indochina, throughout Malesia.


On mossy tree trunks or on muddy rocks in dense evergreen forests usually near streams at low altitudes lower than 300 m.

Proposed IUCN Conservation Assessment

Least Concern (LC). This species is widespread and not under any known threat.


This species is distinct in short creeping thick rhizome bearing larger fronds closely, less clathrate long rhizome scales, with more or less crisped hair-pointed apex, more or less castaneous stipe or frond base, and midrib distinctly raised above but nearly flat on lower surface.

Voucher specimens - Thailand

Middleton et al 5375, Satun, Than Plew Waterfall (E).



Upper frond surface with raised midrib

Upper frond surface with raised midrib

Upper frond surface with flat-topped midrib

Upper frond surface with flat-topped midrib

Lower frond surface and sori

Lower frond surface and sori



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