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Ahmann I. (1997). Growth, herbivory and disease in relation to gender in Salix viminalis L. Oecologia, 111, 61-68.

Bruns, T.D., Szaro, T.M., Gardes, M., Cullings, K.W., Pan, J.J., Taylor, D.L., Horton, T.R., Kretzer, A., Garbelotto, M. & Li, Y. (1998). A sequence database for the identification of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by phylogenetic analysis. Molecular Ecology, 7, 257-272.

Bryant, J.P. (1987). Feltleaf willow-snowshoe hare interactions: plant carbon-nutrient balance and floodplain succession. Ecology, 68, 1319-1327.

Feeny, P. (1991). The evolution of chemical ecology: contributions from the study of herbivorous insects. pp1-35 in Herbivores; their interactions with plant secondary metabolites Volume 2. Eds Rosenthal G.A. & Berenbaum M.R. Academic Press, San Diego.

Fritz, R.S., Johansson, L., Astrom, B., Ramstedt, M. & Haggstrom, H. (1996). Susceptibility of pure and hybrid willows to isolated of Melampsora epitea rust. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102, 875-881.

Fritz, R.S., Roche, B.M. & Brunsfeld, S.J. (1998). Genetic variation in the resistance of hybrid willows to herbivores. Oikos, 83, 117-128.

Gardes, M. & Bruns, T.D (1993). ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes - application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology, 2, 113-118.

Goldstein, D.B. & Schlotterer, C. (1999). Microsatellites: evolution and applications. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hagerman & Butler (1989). Choosing appropriate methods and standards for assaying tannin Journal of Chemical Ecology, 15,1795-1810.

Hakulinen J., Sorjonen S. & Julkunen-Tiitto R (1999). Leaf phenolics of three willow clones differing in resistance to Melampsora rust infection Physiol. Plantarum, 105, 662-669.

Hanley, S.J., Barker, J.H.A., Aldman, C., Lindegaard, K.N., Pei, M.H., Hunter, T. & Karp, A. (2000). Improving breeding efficiency of biomass willows using molecular marker technology. Plant and animal genome VIII, Town and Country Hotel, San Diego, CA, January 9-12, 2000.

Helfer, S. (1992). The rust diseases of willows in Britain. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 98B, 119-134.

Hjalten, J., Ericson, L. & Roininen H. (2000). Resistance of Salix caprea, S. phylicifolia, and their F1 hybrids to herbivores and pathogens. Ecoscience, 7, 51-56.

Hunter, T., Royle, D.J. & Arnold, G.M. (1996). Variation in the occurrence of rust (Melampsora spp.) and other diseases and pests, in short-rotation coppice plantations of Salix in the British Isles. Annals of Applied Biology, 129, 1-12.

Jarne, P. & Lagoda, P.J.L. (1996). Microsatellites, from molecules to populations and back. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11, 424-429.

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) (1999). Special Areas of Conservation (SACs)

Keinanen M., Julkunen-Tiitto, R. & Rousi, M. (1999). Taxonomic implications of phenolic variation in leaves of birch (Betula L.) species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 27, 243-254

Kolehmainen, J., Roininen, H., Julkunen-Tiitto, R. & Tahvanainen, J. (1994). Importance of phenolic glucosides in host selection of shoot galling sawfly Euura amerinae on Salix pentandra. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20, 2455-2466.

Kolehmainen, J., Roininen, H., Julkunen-Tiitto, R. & Tahvanainen, J. (1995). Phenolic glycosides as feeding cues for willow feeding leaf beetles. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 74, 235-243.

Mardon D.K. (1991). Conservation of montane willow scrub in Scotland. Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 45, 427-436.

Orians, C.M., Griffiths, M.E., Roche, B.M. & Fritz, R.S. (2000). Phenolic glycoside and condensed tannins in Salix sericea, S. eriocephala and their F1 hybrids: not all hybrids are created equal. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 28, 619-632.

Orians, C.M., Roche, B.M. & Fritz, R.S. (1996). The genetic basis for variation in the concentration of phenolic glycosides in Salix sericea: an analysis of heritability. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 24, 719-724.

Palo, R.T. (1984). Distribution of birch, willow and poplar secondary metabolites and their potential role as chemical defense against herbivores. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 10 , 499-520.

Pei, M.H., Hunter, T. & Ruiz, C. (1999). Occurrence of Melampsora rusts in biomass willow plantations for renewable energy in the United Kingdom. Biomass and Bioenergy, 17, 153-163.

Pollock, M. (2000). Salix exclosures at Inchnadamph NNR. Native Woodlands Discussion Group Newsletter, 7, 7.

Roininen, H., Price, P.W. & Tahvanainen, J. (1996). Bottom-up and top-down influences in the trophic system of a willow, a galling sawfly, parasitoids and inquilines. Oikos, 77, 44-50.

Roininen H., Price P.W. & Bryant J.P. (1997). Response of galling insects to natural browsing by mammals in Alaska. Oikos, 80, 481-486.

Rosenthal, G.A. & Janzen, D. (1979). Herbivores: their interaction with plant secondary metabolites. Academic Press, New York.

Stewart, A., Pearman, D. & Preston, C.D. (1994). Scarce Plants in Britain. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.

Watling, R. (1992). Macrofungi associated with British willows. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 98B, 135-147.

Wigginton, M.J. (1999). British Red Data Books 1: Vascular Plants. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.

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